Anatomy test 1 (Muscles)

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Anatomy test 1 (Muscles)
2014-02-06 12:47:45
muscles part anatomy

cards for anatomy
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  1. Muscle functions and special characteristics
    Movement, maintenance of posture, joint stabilization, heat generation

    • Special characteristics:
    • contractility, excitability, extensiility, elasticity
  2. Types of Muscle Tissue
    • Skeletal- striated, voluntary movement, 40% body weight
    • Cardiac- Striated, non-voluntary
    • Smooth-non-striated, non-voluntary (in most organs)
  3. Similarity of muscle cells
    • elongated cells called fibers
    • contraction due to myofilaments, (myo=muscle) actin and myosin.
    • Plasma membrane is called sarcolemma, cytoplasm is sarcoplasm.(sarcos=flesh,muscles) (lemma=sheath)
  4. Connective tissue and fascicles (features of skeletal muscle)
    • epimysium- "outside the muscle" overcoat of dense irregular connective tissue around the whole muscle
    • perimysium-fibrous connective tissue around bundle of muscle cells, fascicle.
    • Endomysium- mostly reticular fiber surrounding each muscle fiber
    • Three sheaths are continuous with tendon,connective tissue that connects bone to muscle
  5. Nerves and blood vessels (features of skeletal muscle)
    • each skeletal muscle is supplied by at least one nerve, artery and vein.
    • lost of vascular tissue, to supply lots of blood
  6. Muscles attachment (features of skeletal muscle)
    • muscles go between bones and cross at lease one joint (biarticular if two-joints)
    • Origin of muscle is attachment of bone that moves less, insertion, attachment to bone that moves more (can switch)
    • direct attachments - connective tissue is short (muscle seems attached to peristeum), as opposed to indirect attachment
  7. The skeletal muscle fiber
    • long cylindrical cells (centimeters long)
    • multinucleated made of many fused cells
  8. myofibrils and sacromeres
    myofibrils- unbranched cylinders within the muscle fibers. A long row of repeating segments, sarcomeres, the smallest contractive segment 
  9. Sarcomere
    • Z-disc (ends), A band (overlap), I band (only thin actin myofilaments), 
    • H zone (central A band with no actin), M line (holds thick myosin filaments together, contains ATPase)
  10. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
    • elaborate tubules of smooth endoplasmic reticulum that surround each myofibril.
    • Most run longitudinally, some perpendcular channels over junctions of A and I bands, terminal cisterne, on both side of T tubule
    • SR stores Ca2+. released to stimulate contraction
  11. T tubules
    • contractions in skeletal muscle are conducted along sacrolemma, then to T tubules, sarcolemma invaginations between terminal cisterna. 
    • (terminal cisterna and T tubules sandwich is triad)
  12. Mechanism of muscle contraction (two-types)
    concentric contraction- muscle shortens and does work. Myosin heads attach to (thin) actin, contracts and repeats. (shortens distance between Z-discs)

    Eccentric contraction- muscle generates force as it lengthens, (gravity fighting)
  13. Mechanism of muscle extensioon
    opposite muscle contraction
  14. Titin (in muscle)
    Small springlike protein that attaches myosin to the Z-disc
  15. innervation of skeletal muscle
    • Each muscle fiber is connected with a motor neuron's axon (4-200 fibers/neuron)
    • axon meets fiber at neuromuscular junction

    not bundled: weak overall muscle contraction (motor unit)
  16. Slow Oxidative fibers (type 1 of muscle fibers)
    • lots of myoglobin, relatively thin (not much power) use aerobic metabolic functions, lots of mitochondria contract slowly, extremely resilient as long as oxygen is present. 
    • postural muscles,
  17. Fast Glycolytic Fibers (type IIx of muscle fibers)
    contain little myoglobin, use anerobic pathways, few mitochondria, have glycosomes containing glycogen, strong, contract rapidly and tire quickly. (for lifting heavy objects)
  18. Fast Oxydative Fibers (type IIa of muscle fibers)
    Contract quickly, oxygen dependant (lots of myoglobin),lots of mitochondira and cappiliaries, fatgue slowly
  19. Muscular dystrophy (muscle disorder)
    • genetic. 
    • Connective tissue and fat enlarge muscles and muscle fibers degenerate
    • Duchenne muscular dystrophy, lacking protein dystrophin.
  20. Myofascial pain syndrome (muscle disorder)
    painful tightening bands of muscle fibers when skin is touched
  21. Skeletal muscle tissue throughout life
    • mesoderm cell, myoblasts, develop in embryo. Form contracting muscles by 7 weeks.
    • Muscle cells dont undergo mitosis, just thicken and lengthen.
    • Sarcopenia  "flesh wasting" of old people. muscles generally weaken 50% by age 80
  22. Arrangement of Fascicles in Muscles
    • Convergent- Broad origin, converge to tendon of insertion (pectoralis major)
    • Parallel- extend from origin to insertion (biceps bracchi)
    • Circular- concentric circles (sphincter)
    • Pennate- run obliquely and attach to tendon that runs length of muscle, can be multi, bi or unipennate)
  23. Embryonic origin of muscles of visceral organs (smooth and cardiac muscle)
    From splanchnic mesoderm around the early gut
  24. Embryonic origin of pharyngeal arch muscles
    • muscles for facial expression and neck (for swallowing), branchiomeric muscles
    • 4-7th somitomeres
  25. Embryonic origin of axial muscles
    • from myotomes and some somitomeres
    • form trunk muscles, breathing muscles and
    • eye movement and tongue (1-3 somitomeres)
  26. Embryonic origin of limb muscles
    from lateral part of nearby myotomes
  27. Cardiac muscle tissue
    • Striated (sliding filament mechanism)
    • short, branching cells with one or two large nuclei.
    • cardiac muscles join at ends for cardiac fibers. 
    • complex joints called intercalated discs. Transverse attachements have fasciae adherens (like desmosomes), longitudinal gap junctions for transmission of contractile signal.
  28. Smooth muscles
    • elongated, seperated from each other by endomysium,
    • organized in 2 sheets (outer longitudinal layer and inner circular layer)
  29. Naming of muscles (examples)
    • Location- (Brachium=arm or costa=rib)
    • Shape - (deltoid or trapezius)
    • Relative size- (maximus,  minimus, longus, brevus)
    • Direction of fascicles and fibers- (rectus=straight, parallel to body midline)
    • Location of attachments-(origin always named first)
    • Number of origins-(biceps,triceps,quadriceps)
    • Action- (flexor, extensor, adductor, abductor
  30. Muscles of the Scalp (epicranius)
    Frontalis, Temporalis, Occipitalis, galea aponeurotica 
  31. Face Muscles
    • Corrugator supercilii (eyebrow), Orbicularis oculi
    • zygomaticus (smile), Levator labii superioris(raises upper lip), depressor labii inferioris (lowers lower lip), depressor anguli oris (draws corners of mouth), orbicularis oris (kiss),
    • mentalis (wrinkles chin), buccinator (compresses cheek)
  32. Muscles of mastication
    • Masseter, temporalis (elevates mandible)
    • medial and lateral pteygoid (side to side mandible movement)
    • Buccinator (compresses cheek
  33. Muscles of the Anterior neck
    • Platysma (superficial neck muscle, tenses neck skin)
    • digastric ("two bellies", V-shape with tendon, depresses mandible)
    • mylohyoid (myle=molar, deep to digastric, elevate hyoid bone) 
    • sternocleidomastoid (anterorlateral neck,flexes and laterally rotates head)
    • scalenes (lateral neck, elevate first two ribs)
  34. Muscles of posterior neck
    • splenius capitis- (deep to trapezius, extend/hyperextend head)
    • splenius cervicis (deep to splenius capitus)
    • semispinalis (medial to splenius cervicis, extends vertebral column)
    • suboccupitals-(deep to semispinalis, under occipitals)
  35. Select muscles of posterior neck and back
    • trapezius- (trapezoid on back, stabilizes, raises, retracts and rotates scapula)
    • Levator scapulae- (elevates, adducts scapulae, from C1-4 to superior angle of scapula)
    • rhomboids major/minor- (deep to trapezius, stabilizes/retracts scalpula, minor is superior)
    • serratus anterior-(medial wall of axilla, originates on ribs, rotates scalpula holds to chest wall, 

  36. latissimus "widest" dorsi
    • O-Thorocolumnar fascia into lower six thoracic vertebra, lumbar verterae, iliac crest, lower 3-4 ribs,  I-intertubercle groove
    • ( lower ribs to intertubercular sulcus of humerus, medial rotation of humerus)
  37. supraspinatus
    • superaspinous fossa to humerus, deep to trapezius, insertion at greater tubrable
    • part of rotator cuff, abducts humerus
  38. infraspinatus
    • origin at infraspinous fossa, insertion at greater tubercle
    • rotates humerus laterally, rotator cuff muscle
  39. subscalpularis
    • O-subscalpular fossa, I-lesser tubercle
    • medial rotator of muerus, rotator cuff muscle
  40. teres major
    • O-posterior surface of scalpula at inferior angle, I-crest of lesser tubercle, intertubercle groove
    • inferior to teres minor
    • extends, medially rotates and adducts humerus
  41. teres minor
    • O-lateral border of scalpula, I-greater tubercle, inferior to infraspinatus
    • rotator cuff muscle
    • Rotates humerus laterally
  42. pectoralis major
    • O-sternal end of clavicle, sternum, rib 1-6 cartilage, I-intertubercluar groove of humerus
    • prime mover of arm flexion, adducts arm, rotates arm medially
  43. pectoralis minor
    • O-anterior surface of ribs 3-5, I-coracoid process of scalpula. 
    • thin, flat muscle deep to pectoralis major, acts on scalpulae

  44. deltoid
    • O- lateral third of clavicle, acromion and spine of scalpula, I-deltoid tuberosity 
    • multipennate, rounded shoulder muscle mass
    • prime mover of arm abduction

  45. carcobrachialis
    • O-coracoid process, I-medial surface of humeral shaft
    • Cylindrical muscle
    • flexion and adduction of humerus
  46. biceps brachii
    • O-short head:coracoid process, long head:supraglenoid tubercle, I-radial tuberosity
    • two-headed fusiform muscle
    • flexes elbow joint and supinates forearm
  47. brachialis
    • O-front of distal humerus, I-coranoid process of ulna
    • deep to biceps brachii, comes from deltoid
    • major forearm flexor
  48. triceps brachii
    • O-long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, lateral head:posterior shaft of humerus, medial head:posterior humeral shaft, distal to radial groove, I-olecranon process of ulna
    • posterior part of arm 
    • forearm extensor

  49. anconeus
    • O-lateral epicondyle of humerus, I-lateral aspect of olecranon process of ulna
    • short triangular muscle, blended with distal triceps 
    • abducts ulna during pronation
    • splits up flexors and extensors
  50. brachioradialis
    • O-lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus, I-base of radial styloid process
    • synergist in forearm flexion
  51. extensor carpi radialis longus
    • O-lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus, I-base of second metacarpal
    • parallels brachioradialis on lateral forearm
    • extends wrist (with extensor carpi ulnaris), abducts wrist (with flexor carpi radialis)
  52. extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • O-lateral epicondyle of humerus, I-base of third metacarpal
    • deep to longus, and shorter
    • extends and abducts wrist (works with longus)
  53. abductor pollicis longus
    • "pollicis"=thumb
    • O-posterior surface of radius and ulna interosseus membrane, I-base of first metacarpal and trapezium
    • abducts and extends thumb
  54. extensor pollicis longus/brevis
    • O-dorsal shaft of radius and ulna/interosseus membrane, I-base of proximal (brevis) and distal (longus) phalanx of thumb
  55. extensor digitorum
    • O-lateral epicondyle of humerus, I-distal phalanges 2-5
    • medial to extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • detached protion: extensor digiti minimi extends little finger
  56. extensor indicis
    • O-posterior surface of ulna, I-inserts on tendon of extensor digitorum of middle finger
    • medial and parallel to extensor pollicis longus, deep to extensor digitorum
    • extends distal and middle phalanges 
  57. extensor carpi ulnaris
    • O-olecranon process of ulna, I-fifth metacarpal
    • adducts wrist
  58. flexor digitorum profundus
    • O- antero medial ulnar surface, I-4 distal phalanges
    • flexes wrist and digits
    • deep to flexor digitorum superficialis
    • sandwiched between ulnaris muscles
  59. flexor carpi ulnaris
    O-medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon process, I-pisiform and hamate bone and fith metacarpal

    • flexor of wrist, adducts hand
    • just lateral to flexor digitorum profundus
  60. palmaris longus
    • O-humerus, I-metacarpals on palm
    • flexes wrist and abducts hand
    • tenses skin during movement
  61. flexor digitorum superficialis
    • O-humerus, ulna and radius, I-middle phalanges of four digits
    • flexes wrist, hand, digits
  62. flexor carpi radialis
    • O-humerus, I-metacarpals
    • flexes wrist, abducts hand
    • runs diagonally across forearm
  63. flexor pollicis longus
    • O- radius and ulna, I- thumb
    • flexes thumb distally
  64. pronator teres
    • O-humerus, I-radius
    • pronates forearm
  65. supinator
    • two heads, O-lateral epicondyle of humerus, proximal ulna, I-proximal end of radius
    • helps biceps brachii supinate arm
  66. pronator quadratus
    • prime mover of forearm pronation
    • O-distal portion of anterior ulnar shaft, I-distal surface of anterior radius
    • deepest muscle of distal forearm
  67. flexor pollicis brevis
    medial and deep of thenar group
  68. Abductor pollicis brevis
    • superficial, lateral muscle of thenar group (thumb)
    • abducts thumb (points it anteriorly)
  69. opponens pollicis
    • moves thumb to thouch little finger 
    • deep to abductor pollicis brevis
    • flexes thumb

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  70. flexor digiti minimi brevis
  71. adbuctor digiti minimi
  72. opponens digiti minimi
    same of pollicis side
  73. lumbricals
    • in between pollicis and digiti minimi muscles
    • flex and extend fingers 
  74. external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus abdominus, linea alba,inguinal ligament
  75. psoas major
    • O-transverse process, I-lesser trocanter of femur
    • causes lateral flexion of vertebral column, medial to quadratus lumborum
  76. quadratus lumborum
    • O-iliac crestm I- lumbar transverse processes
    • extends lumbar spine
  77. erector spine
    (spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis)
    • spinalis, longissius, iliocostalis
    • medial to lateral, support spine
  78. serratus posterior superior/inferior
    deep to the latissimus dorsi. Lateral and inferior portion of deep back
  79. multifidus
    • thin, deep muscle that supports spine
    • O- sacrum and posterior superioriliac spine, I-spinous process, all the way to axis
  80. medial meniscus, lateral mensicus
    • C- shaped fibrocartilage location within medial/lateral condyles, provide knee joint cushioning 
  81. anterior/posterior cruciate ligament
    • anterior- connects posterior side of femur to anterior tibia (prevent anterior slipping of tibia)
    • posterior-connects anteriorinferior femur to posterior tibia (prevent posterior displacement of tibia)
  82. laterial (fibular) and medial (tibial) collateral ligament
    • tendons on lateral/medial surface of knee joint, prevents hyper ad/abduction of the leg at knee
  83. iliopsoas:
    iliacus and psoas major
    • ilopsoas made of two muscles (iliascus and psoas major)
    • iliacus- O-iliac fossa, I-Lesser trocanter
    • prime mover of thigh flexion, and flexing trunk
    • psoas major- O-TP of lumbar, I-lesser torcanter via iliopsoas tendon
    • more medial of the two
  84. pectineus
    • O-pectineal line of pubis, I-lesser torcanter to linea aspera
    • short flat muscle medial to  iliopsoas, adducts flexes and medially rotates femur
  85. sartorius
    • straplike superficial muscle. O-anterior superior iliac spine, I-winds around into medial aspect of proximal tibia
    • flexes, abducts  and laterally rotates thigh and flexes knee
    • longest muscle in body
  86. tensor fasciae latae
    • O-anterior aspect of iliac crest, I-iliotibial tract
  87. iliotibial tract
    • (ITB) fibrous band from iliac crest and gluteus maximus  to lateral condyle of tibial bone
  88. Quadriceps femoris:
    rectus femoris, vastus lateralis/intermedius/,edialis
    • all extend lower leg
    • rectus femoris is straight down the thigh
  89. gracilis
    • O-inferior ramus and body of pubis, I-,medial surface of tibia, inferior to medial condyle
    • long, thin superficial muscle of medial thigh
  90. Adductor longus/brevis/magnus
    • longus-most superficial, overlies middle of magnus
    • brevis-concealed under longus and pectinus
    • magnus-triangle with broad insertion
    • all insert into the linea aspera

  91. gluteus maximus
    • O-dorsal ilium, sacrum and coccyx, I-gluteal tuberosity of femur. 
    • major extensor
  92. gluteus medias
    • deep to gluteus maximus, abducts and rotates thigh medially 
    • O-between anterior and posterior gluteal lines on lateral surface of ilium, I-lateral aspect of greater trocanter
  93. gluteus minimus
    • deepest gluteal muscle, abducts thigh
  94. deep hip rotators:
    piriformis, superior gemellus, obturator internus, inferior gemellus, obturator externus, quadratus femoris
    • piriformis- pyramidal musclem inferior to gluteus minimus
    • superior gemellus-inferior to piriformis, O-ischial spine, I-greater trocanter
    • obturator internus- inferior to superior gemellus, lateral rotation
    • inferior gemellus-inferior to obturator, O-ischial tuberosity I-greater trocanter
    • obturator externus-deep to quadratus femoris
    • quadratus femoris- most inferior hip rotator

  95. hamstrings:
    semimembraneous, semitendinosus, biceps femoris
    • all extend thigh  and flex knee, on posterior of thigh 
    • biceps femoris- most lateral
    • semitendinosus- between biceps  and semimembraneous
    • semimembraneous- most medial
  96. pes anserinus
    • bony landmark medial to tibial tuberosity,
    • common tendenous insertion of gracilis, sartorius and semitendinous
  97. plantaris
    • O-posterior femus, above lateral condyle, I-via long, thin tendon to calcaneus
    • flexes foot and knee
  98. triceps surae:
    gastrocnemius and soleus
    • superficial calf muscles, insert into achilles (calcaneal) tendon. inserts into calcaneous 
    • gastrocnemius: two prominent bellies that form main calf. flexes foot and knee
    • soleus: broad flat muscle deep to gastrocnemius, plantar flexes foot
  99. popliteus
    • O-lateral condyle of femur and meniscus, I-proximal tibia
    • deep muscle that rotates  and flexes knee
  100. tibialis posterior
    flexor digitorum longus
    flexor hallucis longus
    • tibialis posterior: O-fibia and tibia, I-metatarsals, inversion and plantar flexion of foot
    • flexor digitorum longus: O-posterior surface of tibia, I-phalnages, flexes digits
    • flexor hallucis longus: O-posterior tibia,I- hallux, flexes hallux
  101. peroneus (fibularus) longus
    peroneus (fibularus) brevis
    peroneus (fibularus) tertius
    • lateral muscles
    • peroneus (fibularus) longus: O-tibia and fibula, I-first metatarsal. Flexes everts foot.
    • superficial lateral muscle
    • peroneus (fibularus) brevis:O-distal fibula, I-fifth metatarsal. flexes evers foot
    • deep to longus
    • peroneus (fibularus) tertius: O-anterior surface of fibula, I-fifth metarsal
  102. extensor digitorum longus
    • O-tibia and fibula, I-digits 2-5 
    • extends and dorsiflexes foot
    • lateral to tibialis anterior

  103. extensor hallucis longus
    • O-fibula, I-distal phalanx of hallux
    • deep to extensor digitorum longus
  104. tibialis anterior
    • O-lateral condyle and upper 2/3 of tibial shaft, I-tendon into inferior surface of medial cuneiform
    • superficial muscle anterior of leg
  105. extensor digitorum brevis
    • four part muscle, deep to tendons of extensor digitorum longus
    • O-calcaneus, I-toes 2-5
  106. flexor hallucis brevis
    • medial muscle on sole of foot
    • O-cuboid, lateral cuneiform, I-medial and lateral sides of great toes
  107. abductor digiti minimi
    abductor hallucis
    felxor digitorum brevis

    superficial muscles on sole of foot
    • abductor digiti minimi: O-calcaneus, I-lateral side of little toe
    • adbucts and flexes little toe
    • abductor hallucis: medial 
    • felxor digitorum brevis: between other muscles
  108. lumbricals
    quadratus plantae
    • second layer deep
    • umbricals: O-from tendon of flexor digitorum longus, I-proximal phalanx on toes 2-5

    • quadratus plantae: O-calcaneous, I-tendon of flexor digitorum longus
    • rectangular shape with two heads
  109. adductor hallucis
    flexor digiti minimi brevis
    • third layer deep, deep to lumbricals.
    • adductor hallucis: O-metatarsals 2-4, I-lateral side of great toe. two headed
    • flexor digiti minimi brevis: O-fifth metatarsal, I- lateral side of little toe
  110. extensor hallucis brevis
    • muscle on top of foot. 
    • O-calcaneous,I-big toe
  111. flexor digiti minimi brevis