Exam 1.2

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  1. a.       The oldest fossils interpreted as __, because of their size and consistent form, are those of __, which are 2.1 billion years old, which are about 0.5 meters in length and 2 millimeters in diameter
                                                                  i.      Oldest fossils that can be confidently assigned to a modern algal group are __
    1.       About 1.2 billion years old and not very distinguishable from the modern red algae
    • eukaryotic algae
    • Grypania
    • unbranched filaments known as Bangiomorpha
  2. a.       Descendants of the early eukaryotes—__—live in oceans and marine shoreline, and freshwater areas
                                                                  i.      Principle realm is __
                                                                ii.      Protists include __that do not have the distinctive characteristics of  the kingdoms __(3)__
    • protists
    • water
    • eukaryotes 
    • Plant, Fungi, or Animalia.
  3. 1.       These three groups are said to have derived from __ and that the study of modern protists sheds light on the origin of these important groups
    b.      In addition to the evolutionary significance of protists some cause __ of plants or animals, whereas others are of great __significance. 
    • ancient protists
    • important diseases
    • ecological
  4. a.       Protists groups include:
                                                                  i.      Photosynt__
    1.       These are the algae, the organisms studied by phycologists
    Among algae, green algae are significant because __

                                                                  i.      Also __ that are not algae: the __ and __

    1.       Not directly related to fungi
    • phtosynthetic organisms that function ecologically like plants, using light energy to manufacture their own food
    • the plants are derived from an ancestor that would be classified as green alga.

    • heterotrophic protists
    • oomycetes and slime molds
  5. body types of true algae
    •                                                               i.      Amoeba-like cells
    •                                                             ii.      Single cells with or without cell walls that may or may not have flagella
    •                                                           iii.      Colonies consisting of aggregations of cells that may be flagellated or not
    •                                                            iv.      Branched or unbranched filaments
    •                                                              v.      One or two cell-thick sheets
    •                                                            vi.      Tiessues that resemble some tissues of plants and animals
    •                                                          vii.      Multinucleate masses of protoplasm with r without cell walls
  6. a.       Vary in __—very small to very large for protection against being eaten
    b.      Many reproduce __and have complex __, but some reproduce only by __means
                                                                  i.      All three types of life cycles—__, __, and __—occur among protists
    1.       Different phases show diference in appearance and size
    • size
    • sexually 
    • life histories
    • asexual 
    • zygotic, sporic, and gametic
  7. a.       __ are not established
                                                                  i.      Several controversy between green and red algae
    1.       Some say red is a sister to green, others disagree
                                                                ii.      Algae clearly belong to several lineages and that the __are much more closely related to __
    • Phylogenetic relationships
    • oomycetes 
    • brown and golden algae
  8. a.       Ecology of the Algae
                                                                  i.      Algae dominate __habitats, where they are the most important contributors to the __
    1.       They play a similar role to that played by __
                                                                ii.      __: larger, more complex algae like seaweeds
    1.       Seaweeds are subject twice a day to large changes in __. 
    • freshwater 
    • productivity of these ecosystems
    • plants
    • Rocky shores
    • humidity, temperature, salinity and light etc
  9. a.       __ and __, which together constitute the __, are the beginning of the food chain for the __ that live in the ocean and in bodies of fresh water
                                                                ii.      Anchored offshore beyond the __, __ form forests for shelter of fish and invertebrates
    • Photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria
    • phytoplankton
    • hterotrophic organisms
    • zone of waves
    • brown kelps
  10. 1.       In all bodies of water are __
    a.       Heterotrophic plankton include __

    2.       These __, green algae, etc. are at the base of freshwater food chains
    • plankton
    • zooplankton, mainly of tiny crustaceans and the larvae of amyn different phyla of animals, and many heterotrophic protists and bacteria (bacterioplankton)
    • single-celled or colonial chrysophites
  11.                                                               i.      Marine phytoplankton is increasingly being used commercially called __
    1.       Cultivation of algae for __
    a.       __of the algal biomass
    b.      Industrial growth of algae for __
                                                                ii.      __ provide a relatively inexpensive and highly productive system for the mass production of algae
    1.       System consists of an attached algal community, the __, that grows on screens in basins where water is pumped
    • mariculture
    • biofuel production
    • Fermentation 
    • oil extraction
    • Algal turf scrubbers
    • turf
  12. a.       Phytoplankton populations are held in check by __, __, and __.
                                                                  i.      Human disturbance of these ecosystems causes __to occur, such as red tide
    1.       Usually correlate with release of large quantities of toxic compounds into the water, which can cause human illness and die-offs of animals
    seasonal climate changes, nutrient limitation, and predation

  13. a.       Importance in carbon cycling
                                                                  i.      Transform __ into __ by __ and into __ by __, which are then incorporated into algae and transported to the ocean bottom
    1.       Marine phytoplankton absorb about ½ of all the __that results from human activities, especially te burning of coal and fossil fuels
    • CO2 into carbohydrates 
    • photosynthesis
    • calcium carbonate
    • calcification
    • CO2
  14. a.       Mechanism that phytoplanktonic organisms reduce the amount of CO2 in  the atmosphere is by __
                                                                                                                                          i.      The __ is deposited as __ covering the phytoplankton
    1.       The CO2 removed from the water is replaced by atmospheric CO2, creating a __
    a.       __ were formed as they settled to the bottom of the ocean
    • forming calcium carbonate as they fix CO2 during photosynthesis
    • calcium carbonate
    • tiny scales
    • suction effect
    • Calcium deposits
  15. a.       Sulfur producing phytoplankton
                                                                  i.      Aids in regulating __within their cells
    1.       A volatile compound derived from this __compound is __by the cells and is subsequently converted to __ in the atmosphere
                                                                ii.      Sulfur oxides contribute to __
    • osmotic pressure 
    • sulfur 
    • excreted 
    • sulfur oxides
    • acid rain
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Exam 1.2
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