Week 4 Protozoa

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sinopa
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260065
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Week 4 Protozoa
Updated:
2014-02-05 12:33:26
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protozoans parasitology
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wallace winter 2014
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  1. Protista
    one celled organisms
  2. Sarcomastigophora
    • Flagellates
    • Amoebae
  3. Ciliophora
    Ciliates
  4. Apicomplexa
    • Coccidia
    • Piroplasms
  5. Flagellates
    • Sarcomastigophora
    • contains at least one flagellum during trophozoite form
    • live in fluid medium (CSF, blood, etc.)
    • pear shaped
    • can be greatly pathogenic
  6. Giardia spp.
    • most commonly misdiagnosed, underdiagnosed and overdiagnosed
    • two forms can be found in feces
    • trophozoite - motile stage in small intestines
    • cyst - resistant stage for environmental transmission
    • Trophozoite form of Giardia spp.
    • Flagellate
    • 4 pairs of flagella
    • 2 nuclei look like eyes
    • Giardia cyst. resistant stage
    • may appear in the feces one week after infection
  7. Tests used to diagnose Giardia spp
    • Direct Smear: Lugol's idoine stain or New Methylene Blue stain to examine for trophozoites
    • Fecal Flotation: Zinc Sulfate, Lugol's Idoine, New Methylene Blue
    • Giardia Antigen Tests: ELISA
    • PCR: (polymerase chain reaction) - DNA test
    • Tritrichomonas foetus
    • Flagellate
    • REPORTABLE
    • causes spontaneous abortion and infertility
    • diagnosis from fluids of aborted fetus, uterine discharge, vaginal or preputial wash
  8. Bull breeding soundness exam
    • prepuce is flushed with 0.9% NaCl and examind for moving organisms
    • Incubated on media. Positive at 2 days, but may take 6-8
    • Negative at day 10
  9. Tritrichomonas foetus in cats
    • Sarcomastigophora - Flagellate
    • fecal oral transmission
    • typically cats under 2 years of age
    • chronic diarrhea, difficult to diagnose and treat
    • best test is PCR
  10. Amoebae
    • Sarcomastigophera
    • move via pseudopodia or "false feet"
    • two forms: motile trophozoite, resistant cyst
    • Entamoeba histolytica
    • left: Trophozoite (single nucleous, small endosome)
    • Right: cyst (multiple nuclei)
    • Amoebic dysentry in humans
    • motile trophozoite (feeding stage) and cyst stage
    • diagnosis on fecal float, zinc sulfate, direct smear
  11. Ciliophora
    • Ciliates
    • covered with tiny short hairs called cilia
    • two forms: motile trophozoite, resistant cyst
    • two nuclei: macronucleus and micronucleus
    • Balantidium coli
    • Middle: Trophozoite
    • Right: cyst
    • Ciliophora - Ciliates
    • not pathogenic to pigs
    • diarrhea in dogs
    • pathogenic to humans via ingestion of cyst
    • ciliated with large kidney shaped macronucleus
    • fecal flotation and fecal smear of fresh diarrheic feces
    • Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
    • Ich
    • Ciliophora - Ciliates
    • infects skin, gills, fins, and eyes of fish
    • can form whtie spots just below the skin
    • diagnosis by observation or skin scrape
  12. Apicomplexa - Coccidia
    • Coccidians, piroplasms, and malarial organisms
    • Most diverse and complicated
    • epithelium of intestines, blood cells, tissues
    • internal locomotive organelles
    • move via undulations
    • shape - banana, comma, boomerang
    • Cystoisospora spp
    • [formerly Isopora spp.]
    • Coccidiosis = clinical syndrome
    • common in kittens and puppies, also in pigs
    • diagnosis on fecal float - oocyst in fresh feces
    • prepatent period is 7-14 days
  13. Coccidiosis
    • clinical syndrome of Cystoisospora
    • common in kittens and puppies, also in pigs
    • diagnosis on fecal float -- oocyst in fresh feces
    • PPP 7-14  days
  14. Toxoplasma gondii
    • Apicomplexa - Coccidia
    • toxoplasmosis - ZOONOTIC
    • intestinal coccidian of cats
    • felids only known definitive hosts
    • any warm-blooded animal can be paratenic host
    • ingestion of prey that contains cysts
    • ingestion of sporulated oocysts from feces
    • Oocysts shed 3-10 days after ingesting bradyzoites
    • Sporulated oocyst becomes infective in 1-5 days
  15. Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Cats
    • Blood tests - IgM, IgG, PCR
    • oocysts best detected by centrifugal fecal flotation wit hsheathers sugar solution
    • appearnce similar to other oocysts
  16. Toxoplasmosis in Humans
    • Zoonotic
    • undercooked meat
    • unpasteurized goat milk
    • contaiminated hands/cooking surfaces
    • unwashed vegetables
    • ingestion of sporulated oocysts from cat feces (rare)
  17. Oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii
  18. Cryptosporidia spp
    • Cryptosporidiosis
    • Apicomplexa - Coccidia
    • in small intestine of cats, dogs, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, birds, rodents, reptiles, wild animals
    • diagnosis: very small oocysts on fecal flotation or fresh acid-fast stained smears
  19. Cryptosporidia spp. : cryptosporidiosis "Crypto"
  20. Zoonosis of Cryptosporidium spp.
    • Cryptosporodium parvum
    • calf feces
    • most frequent case of waterborne disease in US
    • fertilizing salad vegetables with manure
    • contaminated food handlers
    • most are self-limiting. 
    • no treatment
    • chronic cases in AIDs patients
    • Eimeria leukarti
    • Apicomplexa - Coccidia
    • horses
    • large and dark brown
    • GI tract
  21. Eimeria spp.
    • Apicomplexa - Coccidia
    • Ruminants, horses, rabbits, mice, rats, guinea pigs
    • GI tract
    • Eimeria bovis
    • Apicomplexa - coccidia
    • micropyle present
  22. Sarcocystis neurona
    • Sarcocystis
    • Apicomplexa - coccidia
    • infects spinal cord of horses
    • causes Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)
    • Ataxia, weakness, muscle wasting
    • Diagnosis on histopathology
    • Sarcocystis neurona
    • Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
  23. Babesia canis
    • Apicomplexa - intercellular parasite
    • canine piroplasm
    • intracellular parasite of RBCs
    • spread by tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus
  24. Babesia bigemina
    • Apicomplexa - intercellular parasite
    • RBC parasite of cattle
    • tick carrier R. annulatus
    • reportable disease
  25. Babesia equi  and Babesia caballi
    • Apicomplexa - intercellular parasite
    • RBC parasite of horses
    • equine piroplasm
    • spread by Dermacentor tick
  26. Cytauxzoon felis
    • Apicomplexa - intercellular parasite
    • RBC parasite of cats
    • Ringform piroplasm
    • spread by Dermacentor tick
  27. Haemoproteus spp
    • Apicomplexa - intracellular parasite
    • in RBCs of birds
    • can cause death
    • sausage shaped
    • intermediate hosts are Culicoides sp. and Chrysops sp

  28. Leucocytozoon spp
    • Infects WBCs primarily
    • Greatly distorts cell
    • spread by Simulium sp

  29. Plasmodium spp
    • Apicomplexa - Intercellular parasite
    • avian malaria
    • mosquito is intermediate host
    • developmental stages in spleen, liver
  30. Sugar solution (Sheather's)
    • Doesn't float as many eggs as sodium nitrite,
    • sticky if spilled
  31. Sodium nitrite (Fecasol)
    • most efficient,
    • can form crystals and deform eggs if left to sit too long
  32. Zinc Sulfate (Ovasol)
    • GIARDIA
    • can form crystals
  33. Magnesium sulfate
    • epsom salts
    • inexpensive
    • forms crystals
  34. Saturated sodium chloride
    • not generally recommended
    • corrodes equipment
    • distorts eggs

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