Network+ Chapter2

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  1. Which layer chooses and determines the availability of communicating partners along with the resources necessary to make the connection, coordinates partnering applications, and forms a consensus on procedures for controlling data integrity and error recovery?
    Application Layer
  2. Which layer is responsible for converting data packets from the Data Link layer into electricalsignals?
    Physical Layer
  3. At which layer is routing implemented, enabling connections and path selection betweentwo end systems?
    Network Layer
  4. Which layer defines how data is formatted, presented, encoded, and converted?
    Presentation Layer
  5. Which layer is responsible for creating, managing, and terminating sessions between applications?
    Session Layer
  6. Which layer manages the transmission of data across a physical link and is primarily concerned with physical addressing and the ordered delivery of frames?
    Data Link Layer
  7. Which layer is used for reliable communication between end nodes over the network and provides mechanisms for establishing, maintaining, and terminating virtual circuits as well as controlling the flow of information?
    Transport Layer
  8. Which layer provides logical addressing that routers use for path determination?
    Network Layer
  9. Which layer specifies voltage, wire speed, and connector pinouts and moves bits between devices?
    Physical Layer
  10. Which layer combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames and uses MAC addressing?Which layer combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames and uses MAC addressing?
    Data Link Layer
  11. Host 1 sent a SYN packet to Host 2. What will host 2 send in response?
    A. SYN
    B. SYN-ACK
    C. SYN-NAK
    D. NAK
    E. ACK
    B. SYN-ACK
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. 2. TCP and UDP reside at which layer of the OSI model?
    A. 1
    B. 4
    C. 2
    D. 3
    B. 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which layer of the OSI model provides a user interface in the form of an entry point forprograms to access the network infrastructure?
    A. Physical
    B. Network
    C. Application
    D. Transport
    C. Application
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. You are connected to a server on the Internet and you click on a link on the server andreceive a time-out message. What layer could be the cause of this message?
    A. Physical
    B. Application
    C. Transport
    D. Network
    B. Application
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for code and character-set conversion as well asrecognizing data formats?
    A. Application
    B. Presentation
    C. Network
    D. Session
    B. Presentation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. At which layers of the OSI model do bridges, hubs, and routers primarily operate,respectively?
    A. Data Link, Data Link, Network
    B. Data Link, Physical, Network
    C. Physical, Data Link, Network
    D. Physical, Physical, Data Link
    B. Data Link, Physical, Network
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for converting data into signals appropriate forthe transmission medium?
    A. Network
    B. Physical
    C. Data Link
    D. Application
    B. Physical
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. A receiving host has failed to receive all the segments that it should acknowledge. What canthe host do to improve the reliability of this communication session?
    A. Decrease the window size.
    B. Restart the virtual circuit.
    C. Send a different source port number.
    D. Decrease the sequence number.
    A. Decrease the window size.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which Layer 1 devices can be used to enlarge the area covered by a single LAN segment?(Choose two.)
    A. NIC
    B. Switch
    C. RJ-45 transceiver
    D. Repeater
    E. Hub
    E. Hub   D. Repeater
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Segmentation of a data stream happens at which layer of the OSI model?
    A. Physical
    B. Data Link
    C. Transport
    D. Network
    C. Transport
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. When data is encapsulated, which is the correct order?
    A. Data, segment, frame, packet, bits
    B. Data, segment, packet, frame, bits
    C. Data, frame, packet, segment, bits
    D. Segment, data, packet, frame, bits
    B. Data, segment, packet, frame, bits
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. What are two purposes for segmentation with a bridge?
    A. To add more broadcast domains
    B. To create more collision domains
    C. To add more bandwidth for users
    D. To allow more broadcasts for users
    • B. To create more collision domains
    • C. To add more bandwidth for users
  23. Acknowledgments, sequencing, and flow control are characteristic of which OSI layer?A. Layer 2
    B. Layer 3
    C. Layer 4
    D. Layer 7
    C. Layer 4
  24. Which of the following are types of flow control? (Choose all that apply.)
    A. Buffering
    B. Cut-through
    C. Windowing
    D. Congestion avoidance
    E. VLANs
    • A. Buffering
    • B. Cut-through
    • D. Congestion avoidance
  25. What is the purpose of flow control?
    A. To regulate the size of each segment
    B. To reassemble segments in the correct order at the destination device
    C. To provide a means for the receiver to govern the amount of data sent by the sender
    D. To ensure that data is retransmitted if an acknowledgment is not received
    C. To provide a means for the receiver to govern the amount of data sent by the sender
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. At which layer of the OSI model would you find IP?
    A. Physical
    B. Network
    C. Data Link
    D. Transport
    B. Network
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Of the following, which is the highest layer in the OSI model?
    A. Network
    B. Presentation
    C. Transport
    D. Session
    B. Presentation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Routers perform routing at which OSI layer?
    A. Network
    B. Transport
    C. Application
    D. Physical
    E. Data Link
    A. Network
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following mnemonic devices can you use to remember the first letter of the name of each layer of the OSI model in the proper order?
    A. All People Seem To Need Data Processing
    B. Always Should People Never Threaten Dog Police
    C. Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away
    D. All Day People Should Try New
    • C. Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away
    • D. All People Seem To Need Data Processing
  30. Which IEEE standard specifies the protocol for CSMA/CD?
    A. 802.5
    B. 802.2
    C. 802.11
    D. 802.3
    D. 802.3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. What does OSI stand for?
    Open Source Interconnect
  32. What is the acoustic used to identify Protocol Data Units (PDU) at the various stages of the OSI model?
    • Some, People, Fear, Birthdays,
    • Segment, Packet, Frame, Bytes
  33. How do two devices successfully communicate at the physical layer?
    It uses synchronization bits to agree when one bit stop and another bit starts.
  34. What are the sychronization bit method used at the physical layer?  Please explain.
    Asynchronous - The sender indicates it is about to start transmitting by sending a start bit to the receiver.  When the receiver sees this, it starts its own internal clock to measure the subsequent bits.  After the send transmits its data, it sends a stop bit to indicate it has finished its transmission.

    Synchronous - Synchronizes the internal clock of both ehe sender and receiver to ensure they agreed on when bits begin and end.  Both the sender and receiver uses an external clock source as a reference.
  35. Explain bandwidth usage on a network.
    The fundamental approach is Broadband and Baseband.

    Broadband - Divides bandwidth available on a medium into different channels.  Different communication streams can then be transmitted over different channels.

    Baseband - Uses all available frequencies on a medium to transmit data.  Ethernet is an example of this type of technology.
  36. Which layer of the OSI model is concerned with how bits are represented on the medium and the transmission of data on the network?
    Physical layer or layer 1
  37. What are some typical physical layer topologies?
    Ring, Bus, Star
  38. What is DLC?  What layer do these processes operate?
    Data Link Control which operates at the Data Link layer or layer 2.
  39. What are the two sublayers within layer 2 of the OSI model?
    Media Access Control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC).
  40. How many bits are contained in a MAC address? How are the bits configured?
    48bits.  The first 24 bits identify the manufacturer.  The last 24 bits are unique values provided by the manufacturer.
  41. When a device on the network receives data from another device on the network, the recipient can provide feedback to the sender in the form of an acknowledgement message.  This is a function of what process and what layer.
    Logical link layer within the Data Link layer or layer 2 of the OSI model.
  42. How does the OSI model constrain the flow of data?  At what layer is this accomplished?
    Flow Control is a part of the Logical Link Control within the Data Link Layer or layer 2 of the OSI model.
  43. What is error control and how does it work?  What layer does it operate in?
    Error control provides feedback to the sender by notifying the sender that expected data was or was not received.  The recipient determines if the data is corrupted by using a checksum, if the checksum is incorrect the recipient notifies the sender in an acknowledgement message.  This is a LLC process within the Data Link Layer.
  44. Explain the three synchronization transmissions within LLC?
    Isochronous - Network devices look to a common device in the network as a clock source.  This uses low overhead compared to sync and async.

    Asynchronous - Network devices reference their own internal clocks.  A start and stop bit are added to the data frame at the beginning and end, as well as a parity bit which is used for error detection within the frame.

    Synchronous - Two network devices wanting to communicate with each other must agree on the clock method to indicate the beginning and ending data frames.
  45. What services are contained within the Network Layer?  Where does this reside within the OSI Model?
    Logical addressing, Switching, Route discovery and selection, Connection services, Bandwidth usage, Multiplexing strategy.  This is layer 3 of the OSI Model.
  46. Which layer of the OSI reference model contains the MAC and LLC sublayers?

    A. Network layer
    B. Transport layer
    C. Physical layer
    D. Data link layer
    D. Data link layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which approach to bandwidth usage consumes all the available frequencies on a medium to transmit data?

    A. Baseband
    B. Broadband
    C. Simplex
    D. Time-division multiplexing
    A. Baseband
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. 3. Windowing is provided at what layer of the OSI reference model?

    A. Data link layer
    B. Transport layer
    C. Physical layer
    D. Network layer
    B. Transport layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. 4. IP addresses reside at which layer of the OSI reference model?

    A. Session layer
    B. Transport layer
    C. Network layer
    D. Data link layer
    C. Network layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which of the following is a connectionless transport layer protocol?

    A. IP
    B. TCP
    C. UDP
    D. H.323
    C. UDP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Identify the four layers of the TCP/IP stack.

    a. Session layer
    b. Transport layer
    c. Internet layer
    d. Data link layer
    e. Network layer
    f. Application layer
    g. Network interface layer
    • b. Transport layer
    • c. Internet layer
    • f. Application layer
    • g. Network interface layer
  52. What is the range of well-known TCP and UDP ports?

    A. Below 1023
    B. Below 2048
    C. 16,384–32,768
    d. Above 8192
    A. Below 1023
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which protocol supports a secure connection to a remote host via terminal emulation software?
    A. SSH
    B. FTP
    C. Telnet
    D. SFTP
    A. SSH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Identify the well-known UDP port number for NTP.

    A. 53
    B. 69
    C. 123
    D. 143
    C. 123
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Identify three e-mail protocols.

    a. SNMP
    b. SMTP
    c. POP3
    d. IMAP4
    • b. SMTP
    • c. POP3
    • d. IMAP4
  56. What is the mnemonic for the OSI model
    • All People Seem To Need Data Processors
    • Please Don't Throw Away Sausage Pizza
  57. What is another name for PDU (Protocol Data Unit)?
    Data Service Unit
  58. What is mnemonic for additional names of PDUs depending on where they are in the OSI model?
    Some People Fear Birthdays
  59. How do the PDUs and OSI model relate?
    • Transport -> Segments
    • Network -> Packets
    • Data Link -> Frames
    • Physical -> Bits
  60. How is the physical layer (Layer 1) defined?
    • How bits are represented on the medium.
    • Wiring standards for connectors and jacks.
    • Physical topology.
    • Synchronizing bits.
    • Bandwidth usage
    • Multiplexing strategy
  61. The presence or absence of voltage on a wire can represent binary 1 or 0.  The presence or absence of light on a fiber optic cable can also represent binary 1 or 0.  What is this representation called?
    Current State Modulation
  62. What is the methodology that represents binary 1 or 0 or light (on/off) through changes in these values?
    State Transition Modulation
  63. Explain the two types of synchronizing bits?
    Synchronous - syncs internal clocks of both sender and receiver ensure when bits start and stop.

    Asynchronous - syncs when sender indicates it is about to send by sending a start bit.  The receiver starts its internal clock when it receives the senders start bit.
  64. What is multiplexing strategy?
    It allows communication sessions to share the same medium.  An example is the cell phone, which allows the user to receive, voice, video and data of the cellular network.
  65. Explain TDM.
    Time Division Multiplexing allows mutiple communication session over the same medium by causing the sessions to take turns.
  66. What is the problem with TDM and what is a alternative to it?
    TDM is not efficient because session have to wait its turn even if other sessions have nothing to transmit.  StatTDM (Statistical Time Division Multiplexing) uses an on-demand version of TDM.
  67. What is FDM?
    Frequency Division Multiplexing divides the medium's frequencies into channels, this use is call Broadband.
  68. This layer packages data into frames and transmits those frames on the network while performing error detection and correction, it also uniquely identifies network devices with an address and handles flow control.  What is this layer and what is this collective process called?
    • Data Link Layer (Layer 2).
    • Data Link Control (DLC).
  69. How is the network viewed at the Layer 2 level
    Logical Topology, because DLC is happening at this level traffic flow is determined here and logical topology is defined by traffic flow.
  70. What layer provides connection services?
    Layer 2 (Data Link Layer)
  71. How does connection services work?
    The recipient sends an acknowledgment when it receives a transmission.
  72. The Logical Link Control (LLC) provides connection services by providing an acknowledgment when receiving transmissions.  What are the functions of these acknowledgments?
    Flow control - Limits the amount of data a transmitter can send at one time.

    Error control - Allows the receiver to inform the sender if the data frame was not received or was received corrupted.
  73. What is the problem with using a parity bit for error detection in layer 2?
    It may not be effective if the data frame has more than one error.
  74. Which layers of the OSI model do switching occur?
    • Data Link Layer (Layer 2).
    • Network Layer (Layer 3).
  75. What are three common switching techniques?
    Packet Switching - Where a data stream is divided into packets, also known as ROUTING.

    Circuit Switching - Dynamically brings up a dedicated communication link between two parties.

    Message Switching - Data stream is divided into messages and tagged with a destination address.  This method is not suitable for real-time applications because its delayed process.
  76. What are some ways a router can update its routing table?
    Route discovery and selection happens manually, dynamic routing (ospf, rip, eigrp), or devices directly connected to it.
  77. What layer of the OSI model does connection services occur?
    • Data Link Layer (Layer 2).
    • Network Layer (Layer 3).
  78. Explain connection services at layer 3.
    Makes communication more reliable when connection services at layer 2 is not operating.
  79. Explain the functions provided by connection services at layer 3.
    Flow control (congestion control) - Restricts the amount of data the sender can send to a receiver.

    Packet reordering - Sequences packets appropriately as they are sent.
  80. This layer, of the OSI model, acts as a dividing line between the upper layers and lower layers.

    A. Transport
    B. Network
    C. Session
    D. Application
    A. Transport
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. Explain how the transport layer functions.
    Messages are taken from upper layers (5-7) and encapsulated into segments for transmission to the lower layer (1-3).  Segments from lower layers are decapsulated and sent to layer 5 (session layer) or some other upper layer depending on the protocol.
  82. Explain the two common protocols in Layer 4 (Transport Layer).
    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) - A connection oriented protocol, which means it provides reliable transport by allowing the sender to detect if a segment is dropped, affording retransmission of the dropped segment.

    User Datagram Protocol - A connectionless transport protocol meaning it is unreliable because the sender is unaware of dropped segments and these dropped segments are not retransmitted.
  83. Flow control are provided at what layers of the OSI model?
    • Layer 2 (Data Link Layer)
    • Layer 3 (Network Layer)
    • Layer 4 (Transport Layer)
  84. What types of flow control are provided at Layer 4 (Transport Layer)?
    Windowing - Is a TCP communication type where one or more segments are sent simultaneously and the receiver can acknowledge receipt of all the segments sent in a single acknowledgement (window).

    Buffering - Is when a device allocates a chunk of memory to store segments if bandwidth is not currently available to transmit those segments.
  85. What is a sliding window when referring to Layer 4 TCP windowing?
    A technique used when the window size is set to a single segment and if successful the window size doubles and it continues to double after a previously successful acknowledgement until it reaches its windowing size limit.
  86. The time it takes for a segment to be transmitted, received, and acknowledged is know as, what?
    • (RTT) Round-Trip Time
    • (RTT) Real Transfer Time
  87. What are the procedures for the session layer (Layer 5) to setup a session?
    • Authenticate user credentials.
    • Assign numbers to a session's comms flow to uniquely identify each flow.
    • Negotiating services required during the session.
    • Negotiating which device begins sending data.
  88. What are the procedures for session layer (Layer 5) to maintain a session?
    • Transferring data.
    • Reestablishing a disconnected session.
    • Acknowledging receipt of data.
  89. What are the procedures for session layer (Layer 5) to tear down a session?
    Can be done by mutual agreement of devices in the session or if one party disconnects (intentionally or unintentionally because of error connection).
  90. Name a couple protocols used in Layer 5 (Session Layer).
    • H.323
    • NetBIOS
  91. This layer of the OSI model is responsible for formatting data being exchanged and securing that data with encryption.
    Presentation Layer (Layer 6).
  92. Describe the data formatting and encryption process in the Presentation layer (Layer 6).
    Data formatting - format text in a way that is compatible with communicating devices.

    Encryption - scrambles data so if it is intercepted it will not be intelligible.
  93. What are some services provided in the Application Layer (Layer 7)?
    • File sharing.
    • Email.
  94. What is the name of the reference model developed by the Department of Defense?
    TCP/IP Stack
  95. How does the OSI model and the TCP/IP Stack relate to each other?
    • Application, Presentation,Session --> Application
    • Transport --> Transport
    • Network --> Internet
    • Data Link, Physical --> Network Interface
  96. Describe the packet format for IPv4.
    Image Upload
  97. Describe the UDP packet format.
    Image Upload
  98. Describe TCP segment format.
    Image Upload
  99. Which protocol is good for applications that require a lot of bandwidth and don't require acknowledgment.
    User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  100. What are ports called above1023 called?
    Ephemeral ports.
  101. What protocol utilizes ports 20 and 21
    File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
  102. What protocol utilizes port 22
    • Secure Shell (SSH)
    • Secure FTP (SFTP)
    • Secure Copy (SCP)
  103. What protocol utilizes port 23
    Telnet
  104. What protocol utilizes port 514?
    Remote Shell (rsh)
  105. What protocol utilizes ports 53-TCP and 53-UDP.
    Domain Name System
  106. What protocol utilizes ports 139-TCP and 137,
    138-UDP?
    NetBIOS
  107. What protocol utilizes port 445.
    Server Message Block (SMB)
  108. What protocol utilizes port 69-UDP?
    Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
  109. What protocol utilizes ports 67, 68 - UDP.
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
  110. What protocol utilizes port 80?
    Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  111. What protocol utilizes port 443?
    Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS).
  112. What protocol utilizes port 25?
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  113. What protocol utilizes port 110?
    Post Office Protocol version 3
  114. What protocol utilizes port 143?
    • Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).
    • Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4).
  115. What protocol utilizes port 123 - UDP?
    • Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP).
    • Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP).
  116. What protocol utilizes port 389?
    Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
  117. What protocol utilizes ports 554-TCP and 554-UDP?
    Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)
  118. What protocol utilizes port 3389?
    Remote Desktop Protocol
  119. What protocol utilizes port 161 - UDP?
    Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
  120. What protocol utilizes ports 162 - TCP and
    162 - UDP?
    • Simple Network Management Protocol Trap
    • (SNMP Trap)
  121. What protocol utilizes ports 5061 - TCP and
    5060 - UDP?
    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  122. What protocol utilizes ports 2427 and 2727 - UDP?
    Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP).
  123. What protocol utilizes port 1720?
    H.323
  124. What protocol utilizes ports 5004 and 5005 - TCP and 5004 and 5005 - UDP?
    Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP).
Author:
peeojay
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Card Set:
Network+ Chapter2
Updated:
2018-05-17 12:00:21
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