Chemistry Week 3

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chiroclown
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26010
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Chemistry Week 3
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2010-07-08 01:17:27
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Test 3
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  1. Stoichiometry
    • Requires a balanced equation
    • Use coefficients to balance
  2. Limiting Reagent
    • Is it the cheese or the bread that limits the sandwiches?
    • Has to do with population size (moles) NOT grams or weight
  3. Grams to Volume
    Molar
    • M= moles
    • Liter
  4. Concentration
    • What is printed on the bottled
    • Number of moles present in a certain volume of solution
    • Concentration x Volume= Moles
  5. Dilution Equation
    (Cstock)(Vstock)= (Cwant)(Volumewant)
  6. Equations for Concentration
    • CxV=Moles
    • MxV=Moles
    • MolesxL= Moles
  7. Potential Energy
    • PE
    • PE=Mgh
    • Convert to joules
  8. Kinetic Energy
    • KE
    • KE=1/2MV2
    • Convert to Joules
  9. M
    mass
  10. g
    acceleration due to gravity
  11. h
    height of object
  12. V
    velocity
  13. Specific Heat
    • C
    • measure of how strongly molecules or atoms are bound
    • C=Joules
    • (Kg)Co
    • Large amount of heat to make temperatures rise 1o = strong bond
    • Reverse is true
  14. c
    specific heat
  15. Q
    Joules
  16. /\T=
    Tfinal-Tstarting
  17. Specific Heat of Water
    Cwater=4186 J/(Kg)Co
  18. Alitropes
    Atoms in different configurations/ chemical structure
  19. Isimers
    Molecules in different configurations
  20. Balancing (Stoichiometric) Coefficient
    Numerical multiplier of all the atoms in th formula that follows it
  21. Molar Mass
    M=g/mol
  22. Molar Mass Compounds
    Sum of mass of atoms in formula
  23. Chemical Equation
    Statement in formulas that express the identities and quantities of the substances involved in a chemical or physical change.
  24. Stoichiometrically Equivalent
    A definite amount of one substance is formed from, produces or reacts with a definite amount of the other.
  25. Actual Yield
    Amount of product that are actually obtained.
  26. Percent Yield
    • Actual Yield X 100%
    • Theortical Yield
  27. Electrolyte
    Substance that conducts a current when dissolved in water
  28. AcidBase Reaction
    • When an acid reacts with a base
    • Neutralization reaction
  29. Acid
    Produces H+ ions when disolved in water.
  30. Base
    Produces OH- ions when disolved in water
  31. Titration
    One solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution through monitored reaction.
  32. Equivalance Point
    All moles of the H+ ions (acids) react with same number of OH- (base) ions.
  33. End Point(
    When titration occures and when a tiny excess of OH- (base) changes to its color
  34. Enthalpy (H)
    Thermodynamic variable
  35. Exothermic
    • Heat-out.
    • Releases Heat
    • Decreased
    • (-)
  36. Endothermic
    • Heat-in
    • Absorbs Heat
    • Increase
    • (+)
  37. Specific Heat Capacity
    Quantity of heat required to change its tempurature by 1Co
  38. Calorimeter
    used to measure heat released/ abosrbed by a physical or chemical process.
  39. Hess's Law of Heat Summation
    • The enthalpy change of an overall process is the sum of the enthalpy changes.
    • /\H + /\H1= /\H2
    • A+B=C
  40. Reagent
    • substance or compound that is added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction or is added to see if a
    • reaction occurs
  41. Limited Reagent
    • What mass of ___ can be produced from _____
    • 1) Find mole ration of what you NEED (eg 1 mole ----> 2mole
    • 2) Find moles of substances
    • 3) Divide both by the smallest to determine # of moles
    • 4) Compare with need- that which is less than need is limited reagent
  42. Theoretical Yield
    • 1) Balance the reaction and determine the stoichiometry or ratios of reactants to products.
    • 2) Find the number of moles of each starting material used.
    • 3) Determine which reagent is limiting.
    • 4) Calculate the moles of product expected if the yield were 100% based on the limiting reagent. (moles x grams)
    • 5) Calculate the grams of product corresponding to the number of moles expected.
  43. Dilution
    Spreading out of solute

    Volume of orginal solution + Volume of added solvent = Volume of diluted solution
  44. Indicators
    • Sustances which undergo a detectable chage at the completeion of a seperate chemical reaction.
    • Usually Acid-Base indicators undergo a color change at the completion of Acid-Base Titration
  45. Litums
    Dye extracted from the inner bark of a south american tree.
  46. Six Forms of Energy
    Chem Nursing Lecture

    • Chemical
    • Heat
    • Electrical
    • Mechanical
    • Nuclear
    • Light
  47. All forms of enrgy are...
    Interconvertible
  48. Conservative System
    • When all of the PE can be converted to KE and vice versa
    • Interconvertiblity
  49. Deforming and object
    Overcoming Friction
    • System in which energy is lost
    • Nonconservative
  50. Thermodynamics
    The study of heat flow or how energy is converted to useful heat and work
  51. Calori
    amount of heat when added to 1gram of water cause the temperature to rise 1oC
  52. Specific Heat
    • amount of heat added to specifically 1kilogram of a substance to raise its temperature 1oC
    • Specifies certain conditions
    • Reversible (rising dropping)
  53. Dulong's Petit's Law
    • Specific Heat of metals, when multiplied by their molar mass is a constant.
    • Implies that metals share the same type of bonding.
  54. <-------->
    Reversible Reaction
  55. State Functions
    Path Independent
  56. STooP
    • Standard Temperature and Pressure
    • 0oC (standard temperature)
    • 1atm (standard pressure
  57. Standard State
    • The physical state (gas, liquid or solid) in which an element or compount is found at:
    • 25oC (room temperature)
    • 1atm (standard pressure)
  58. /\H
    Change in Enthalpy
  59. /\Horxn= Sum of all /\Hof (products) - Sum of all /\Hof (Reactants)
    Heat or Enthalpy of any Reaction
  60. Combustion Calorimeter
    Measures the heat evolved in a chemical reaction

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