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- Emphasized genes and inborn characteristics
- focused on learning expericnve
Edward L Thorndike
- "chief determining factor is heredity"
- Nativist, nature
John B Watson
- experience write any message on blank slate of people
- Empiricist, nurture
Field pf psychology emphasizing the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain our human commonalities in the areas of social practices, perception, emotional responses, reasoning, cooperation, helpfulness... other behaviors.
an interdisciplinary field concerned with genetic contributions to individual differences in behavior and personality
What affects our genes?
- stress, diet, emotional events, hormonal changes
the functional units of heredity; composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteins
- within every cell
- rod-shaped structures of protein
- genes located on
Chromosomal molecule that transfers genetic characteristics by way of coded instructions for the structure of proteins
The full set of genes in each cell of an organism (with the exception of sperm and eggs), together with noncoding DNA located outside the genes
A segment of DNA that varies among individuals, has a known location on a chromosome, and can function a a genetic landmark for a gene involved in a physical or mental condition.
The study of stable changes in the expression of a particular gene that occur without changes in DNA base sequences; the Greek prefix "epi" means "on top of" or "in addition to"
- A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributed to genetic differences among individuals within a group.
- Max of 1.0 (100)
- Estimate of Heritability applies only to a particular group living in a particular environment
- Heritability estimates do not apply to a specific person, only to variations within a group of people.
- Even highly heritable traits can be modified by the environment.
- Infer it by studying people whose degree of genetic similarity is known
- Compare traits of adopted children with genetic relatives.
- Compare groups of same-sex fraternal twins with groups of identical twins. If identical twins are more alike then the increased similarity must be due to genetic influence
- twins that develop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperm
- no more alike genetically than any other pair of siblings
Twins that develop when a fertilized egg divides into two parts that develop into separate embryos
study the brain and the rest of the nervous system in hopes of gaining a better understanding of normal behavior and the outer reaches of what is possible for the brain
Central Nervous System
- The portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
- Receives, processes, interprets and stores the incoming sensory information
A collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back, protected by a column of bones.
Peripheral Nervous System
- All portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord; it includes sensory and motor nerves.
- Handles the CNS input and output.
- Divided into somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Somatic Nervous System
- The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects so sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
- The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the internal organs and glands.
- Separated into the sympathetic and parasympathetic
Sympathetic Nervous System
The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes bodily resources and increases the output of energy during emotion and stress
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that operates during relaxed states and that conserves energy.
- A cell that conducts electrochemical signals; the basic unit of the nervous system; also called a nerve cell
- 3 main parts: dendrites, cell body, axon
Cells that support, nurture, and insulate neurons
A neuron's branches that receive information from other neurons and transmit it toward the cell body
The part of the neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether or not it will fire
A neuron's extending fiber that conducts impulses away from the cell body that transmits them to other neurons
A fatty insulation that may surround the axon of a neuron
A bundle of nerve fibers (axons and sometimes dendrites) in the peripheral nervous system.
The production of new neurons form immature stem cells
Immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells; given encouraging environments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type
The site where transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs; it includes the axon terminal, the synaptic cleft and receptor sites in the membrane of the receiving cell
A brief change in electrical voltage that occurs between the inside and the outside of an axon when a neuron is stimulated; it serves to produce an electrical impulse
A chemical substance that is released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and that alters the activity of a receiving neuron
the removal or disabling of a brain structure to gain better understanding of its function
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
A method of stimulating brain cells, using a powerful magnetic field produced by a wire coil placed on a person's head; it can be used by researchers to temporarily inactivate neural circuits.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
A technique that applies a very s mall electric current to stimulate or suppress activity in parts of the cortex; it enables researchers to identify the functions of a particular area.
A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes.
Event-related Potentials (ERP)
A technique that isolates the neural activity associated with a specific stimulus (event).
A method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain, for example by using injections of a glucose-like substance containing a radioactive element.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
A method for studying body and brain tissue, using magnetic fields and special radio receivers
A type of MRI used to study brain activity associated with specific thoughts and behaviors
The brain's ability to change and adapt in response to experience, through neurogenesis, or by reorganizing or growing new neural connections
The detection, by sense organs, of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects
The process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information
Specialized cells that convert physical energy in the environment or the body to electrical energy that can be transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain
The reduction or disappearance of sensory responsiveness when stimulation is unchanging or repetitious
The absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation
The focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment and the blocking out of others
Failure to consciously perceive something you are looking at because you are not attending to it.
Principles that describe the brain's organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns