Psychology 101-2

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  1. Nativists
    • Emphasized genes and inborn characteristics
    • nature
  2. Empiricists
    • focused on learning expericnve
    • nurture
  3. Edward L Thorndike
    • "chief determining factor is heredity"
    • Nativist, nature
  4. John B Watson
    • experience write any message on blank slate of people
    • Empiricist, nurture
  5. Evolutionary Psychology
    Field pf psychology emphasizing the evolutionary mechanisms that might help explain our human commonalities in the areas of social practices, perception, emotional responses, reasoning, cooperation, helpfulness... other behaviors.
  6. Behavioral Genetics
    an interdisciplinary field concerned with genetic contributions to individual differences in behavior and personality
  7. What affects our genes?
    • Experience
    • stress, diet, emotional events, hormonal changes
  8. Genes
    the functional units of heredity; composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteins
  9. Chromosomes
    • within every cell
    • rod-shaped structures of protein
    • genes located on
    • mom-23
    • dad-23
    • total-46
  10. DNA
    Chromosomal molecule that transfers genetic characteristics by way of coded instructions for the structure of proteins
  11. Genome
    The full set of genes in each cell of an organism (with the exception of sperm and eggs), together with noncoding DNA located outside the genes
  12. Genetic markers
    A segment of DNA that varies among individuals, has a known location on a chromosome, and can function a a genetic landmark for a gene involved in a physical or mental condition.
  13. Epigenetics
    The study of stable changes in the expression of a particular gene that occur without changes in DNA base sequences; the Greek prefix "epi" means "on top of" or "in addition to"
  14. Heritability
    • A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributed to genetic differences among individuals within a group.
    • Max of 1.0 (100)
    • Estimate of Heritability applies only to a particular group living in a particular environment
    • Heritability estimates do not apply to a specific person, only to variations within a group of people.
    • Even highly heritable traits can be modified by the environment.
  15. Computing heritability
    • Infer it by studying people whose degree of genetic similarity is known
    • Compare traits of adopted children with genetic relatives.
    • Compare groups of same-sex fraternal twins with groups of identical twins.  If identical twins are more alike then the increased similarity must be due to genetic influence
  16. Fraternal twins
    • twins that develop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperm
    • no more alike genetically than any other pair of siblings
  17. Identical twins
    Twins that develop when a fertilized egg divides into two parts that develop into separate embryos
  18. Neuroscientists
    study the brain and the rest of the nervous system in hopes of gaining a better understanding of normal behavior and the outer reaches of what is possible for the brain
  19. Central Nervous System
    • The portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
    • Receives, processes, interprets and stores the incoming sensory information
  20. Spinal cord
    A collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back, protected by a column of bones.
  21. Peripheral Nervous System
    • All portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord; it includes sensory and motor nerves.
    • Handles the CNS input and output.
    • Divided into somatic and autonomic nervous systems
  22. Somatic Nervous System
    • The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects so sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles
    • Bodily
  23. Autonomic Nervous System
    • The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the internal organs and glands.
    • Self-governing
    • Separated into the sympathetic and parasympathetic
  24. Sympathetic Nervous System
    The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes bodily resources and increases the output of energy during emotion and stress
  25. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that operates during relaxed states and that conserves energy.
  26. Neuron
    • A cell that conducts electrochemical signals; the basic unit of the nervous system; also called a nerve cell
    • 3 main parts: dendrites, cell body, axon
  27. Glia
    Cells that support, nurture, and insulate neurons
  28. Dendrites
    A neuron's branches that receive information from other neurons and transmit it toward the cell body
  29. Cell body
    The part of the neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether or not it will fire
  30. Axon
    A neuron's extending fiber that conducts impulses away from the cell body that transmits them to other neurons
  31. Myelin sheath
    A fatty insulation that may surround the axon of a neuron
  32. Nerve
    A bundle of nerve fibers (axons and sometimes dendrites) in the peripheral nervous system.
  33. Neurogenesis
    The production of new neurons form immature stem cells
  34. Stem Cells
    Immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells; given encouraging environments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type
  35. Synapse
    The site where transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs; it includes the axon terminal, the synaptic cleft and receptor sites in the membrane of the receiving cell
  36. action potential
    A brief change in electrical voltage that occurs between the inside and the outside of an axon when a neuron is stimulated; it serves to produce an electrical impulse
  37. Neurotransmitter
    A chemical substance that is released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and that alters the activity of a receiving neuron
  38. Lesion method
    the removal or disabling of a brain structure to gain better understanding of its function
  39. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
    A method of stimulating brain cells, using a powerful magnetic field produced by a wire coil placed on a person's head; it can be used by researchers to temporarily inactivate neural circuits.
  40. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
    A technique that applies a very s mall electric current to stimulate or suppress activity in parts of the cortex; it enables researchers to identify the functions of a particular area.
  41. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes.
  42. Event-related Potentials (ERP)
    A technique that isolates the neural activity associated with a specific stimulus (event).
  43. PET scan
    A method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain, for example by using injections of a glucose-like substance containing a radioactive element.
  44. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
    A method for studying body and brain tissue, using magnetic fields and special radio receivers
  45. fMRI(functional MRI)
    A type of MRI used to study brain activity associated with specific thoughts and behaviors
  46. Plasticity
    The brain's ability to change and adapt in response to experience, through neurogenesis, or by reorganizing or growing new neural connections
  47. Sensation
    The detection, by sense organs, of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects
  48. Perception
    The process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information
  49. Sense receptors
    Specialized cells that convert physical energy in the environment or the body to electrical energy that can be transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain
  50. Sensory adaption
    The reduction or disappearance of sensory responsiveness when stimulation is unchanging or repetitious
  51. Sensory deprivation
    The absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation
  52. Selective attention
    The focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment and the blocking out of others
  53. Inattentional Blindness
    Failure to consciously perceive something you are looking at because you are not attending to it.
  54. Gestalt principles
    Principles that describe the brain's organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns
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Psychology 101-2
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