BIO II Test 1

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  1. Prokaryotes
    • no nucleus
    • bacteria
    • nucleic acid (DNA)
    • walls
    • small in size
  2. Eukaryotes
    • nucleus
    • nucleic acid (DNA)
    • organelles
    • walls in plants and fungi
    • no walls in animals
    • bigger in size
    • 1 egg yolk = l cell (most microscopic)
  3. 7 Properties of living organisms
    • reproduction
    • energy processing
    • growth/ development
    • order not random
    • regulation
    • respond to environment
    • evolve and adapt
  4. 5 kingdoms
    • plantae
    • animalia
    • fungi
    • protista
    • bacteria (monera)
  5. 3 domains
    • Bacteria
    • Eukaryota
    • Archaea (extreme conditions)
  6. observations about living organisms
    • 1. we are not all alike: individual variation
    • 2. we make more offspring than can survive
    •     1. unequal reproductive success
    •     2. favorable trait accumulate
  7. artificial selection vs. natural selection
    we are making a choice of what traits we are selecting


    your environment is making the selection
  8. Ribosomes --> Endoplasmic reticulum --> Golgi apparatus
    • 1. Ribosomes- synthesize protein
    • 2. Endoplasmic reticulum- secretes proteins (insulin) 
    • 3. Golgi Apparatus- sorts proteins and tells them where to go
  9. After leaving the Golgi apparatus the proteins go to 1 of 3 places
    • 1. plasma membrane- site of protein secretion
    • 2. peroxisome- detoxification
    • 3. lysosomes- digestion
    •     food or particles brought into cell
    •     damaged organelle inside the cell
  10. What do Mitochondria do?
    • Synthesize ATP
    • ATP is the energy currency in the cell, the way we move energy around the cell
  11. cells are held together by 3 types of junctions to make tissues
    • tight junctions- zip cells together
    • anchoring junctions-  (Desmesomes) spot welds that hold cells together
    • gap junctions- like anchoring but with holes to allow transfer between cells
  12. 4 types of tissues
    • connective- hold portions of organs together
    • nervous- specialized for cellular communication
    • muscle- specialized for contraction leading to movement
    • epithelial (coverings)- cover surfaces of organs inside and outside
  13. All connective tissues have
    • A matrix
    • Fiber
    • Cells (Fibroblasts)
    • blasts= cells
  14. connective tissue fibers include
    • collagen- bone cartilage etc
    • elastic- cartilage skin etc
    • fibrin- blood
    • reticular- special
  15. Connective tissues
    • 1. loose connective tissue (under skin)
    • 2. fibrous connective tissue (forming a tendon)
    • 3. Adipose tissue (fat tissue)
    • 4. cartilage (at end of boneO
    • 5. bone
    • 6. blood
  16. ligament (fibrous connective tissue)
    hold bone to bone
  17. tendon (fibrous connective tissue)
    connect muscle to bone
  18. Muscle tissue
    • skeletal- voluntary, striated
    • cardiac- involuntary, striated
    • smooth muscle- involuntary, smooth (esophagus)
  19. nervous tissue
    • cell extensions
    •       Dendrites (in)
    •       Axons (out)
  20. Digestive system
    mouth -> esophagus -> liver -> stomach -> small intestine -> large intestine -> anus
  21. 4 main elements in human body
    • carbon
    • oxygen
    • hydrogen
    • nitrogen
  22. 4 types of bonds
    • ionic- strong (hold ions together) Na+ Cl- --> NaCl
    • covalent- strongest (share electrons) 2H+ O2 --> 2H2O
    • hydrogen- weak (share hydrogen)
    • van der Waals interactions- very weak (not really bonds)
  23. macro-nutrients vs micro-nutrients
    protein, lipids, carbohydrates

    vitamins and minerals- need less but still essential
  24. 4 step process of eating
    ingestion -> digestion (breaks down macromolecules into their monomers for absorption) -> absorption -> elimination
  25. Breaking down polysaccharids
     and DNA/RNA
    polysaccharid/ disaccharide -> carbohydrate digesting enzymes -> monosaccharids

    DNA/RNA ->nucleic acid digesting enzymes -> nucleotides
  26. complete proteins vs incomplete
    complete proteins contain all 20 amino acids
  27. Epiglottis
    covers trachea to keep food out of lungs
  28. Peristalsis
    • moves food down esophagus
    •        reverse= vomitting
  29. chyme
    acid and enzymes and partially digested food all mixed together

    enzymes in the first half of the small intestine digest polymers in the acid chyme from the stomach to their monomers

    2nd half absorbs nutrients (lots of surface area)
  30. 3 parts of small intestine
    • Duodenum -> digestive portion
    • Jejunum
    • Illium
  31. cholesterol based soap
    bile produced by the liver and gall bladder

    lipids are not water soluable so you need the cholesterol to break up the greasy lipid
  32. pancrease
    • makes enzymes (insulin) to break up carbohydrates
    • your liver stores it as glycogen and your cells burn it
  33. large intestine
    absorbs water some nutrients and packages the feces for ejection from the rectum

    when the large intestine does not reabsorb water you get diarrhea
  34. respiration vs cellular respiration

    where we burn macronutrients for energy (especially glucose)
  35. cellular respiration (formula)
    glucose (C6H12O6) - 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPs (energy)

    the chemical energy in the bonds of glucose is harvested and stored in ATP for use elsewhere in the cell
  36. glycolysis outputs
    • 2 pyruvate
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 ATP
  37. Glycolysis input
    • glucose (6 carbons)
    • 2 NAD
    • 2 ADP + 2 P
  38. food to run glycolysis
    • 1st choice- carbohydrates and glucose (burn right away)
    • 2nd choice- fats (fats can be stored)
    • 3rd choice- proteins (what your cells are made of)
  39. Hierarchy of life
    biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle, molecule
  40. enzymes
    specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
  41. carbohydrates monomers
  42. protein monomer
    amino acids
  43. DNA deoxyribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid monomer
  44. Endoplasmic reticulum smooth vs rough
    • smooth= no ribosomes, synthesizes lipds
    • rough= with ribosomes, makes more membrane (bound ribosomes make protein)
  45. Golgi apparatus
    • finishes, sorts, and ships cell products
    • serves as a molecular warehouse and finishing factory for products manufactured by the ER
    • post office
  46. lysosomes
    sac of digestive enzymes
  47. nucleus
    reserve library
  48. heliobacter pylori
    stomach ulcers
  49. macromolecule polymers synthesized and degraded by
    • synthesized by dehydration
    • degraded by hydrolysis
  50. the citric acid cycle produces
    carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH
  51. you get more energy from what than what
    oxidative phosphorylation; glycolysis
  52. protein polymers in your body come from
    dehydration synthesis from amino acids in your diet
  53. glycolysis converts
    glucose to pyruvate
  54. cellular respiration produces
    ATP, carbon dioxide, and water
  55. fats can or cannot enter glycolysis
    they can
  56. lactic acid fermentation more efficient true false
  57. carbohydrates can be biochemically converted into fats true false
Card Set:
BIO II Test 1
2014-02-04 05:38:47
Biology WVWC

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