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L1, O1: Analyze how advents in technology (including advances in agriculture, communication, and transportation) affected Northern industry in pre-Civil War America.
- 1. How did inventions in agriculture improve farming? How did they change the farming community?
- Several inventions in agriculture improved farming during this period. John Deere created a lightweight steel plow that allowed for faster, more effective plowing. Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical reaper, which significantly increased the efficiency of the reaping process for a multitude of grains. Most inventions in this area significantly reduced the number of laborers needed and allowed farmers to produce a greater amount of goods for less money. Displaced farm workers traveled west to establish their own farms, or to cities in the North to find employment.
- 2. How did the telegraph change modes of communication?
- Before Morse invented a functional telegraph, communication was a very difficult process. Carriers had to travel significant distances to deliver letters to and from individual parties. After the telegraph was established, individuals could communicate almost instantly. This affected both individuals and the market and economy—businesses now had quick access to information and could communicate without delay about supply needs, consumer demands, and the prices of different goods.
- 3.What inventions made in transportation changed the economy? How did they change the economy?
- In the eighteen hundreds, the locomotive and the steamboat became feasible means for the transportation of goods and people across the country. The steamboat freed travelers to move up- and downstream, depending on their needs, and allowed them to travel with greater safety in bad weather. The locomotive allowed goods to be transported much more quickly than in the past. In general, both the steamboat and the locomotive changed the economy by increasing the efficiency of transporting goods. More could be transported faster.
L1, O2: List the various factors that led to economic changed in the North
- 1. What factors led to economic changes in the North?
- The invention of the steam engine was at the heart of the growth that occurred in Northern industry. Factories began using the powerful steam engine in their machinery, which allowed goods to be produced more quickly and at a lower cost. Steam engines in locomotives allowed more goods to be transported more quickly and linked towns and cities, effectively uniting markets. Steam power facilitated a greater efficiency in the production and transportation of economic goods.
L1, O3: Identify the working conditions for groups of people laboring in Northern cities (including unskilled laborers, artisans, women, immigrants, and blacks).
- 1. What were conditions like in Northern factories?
- Dangerous conditions existed in Northern factories. The machinery, which had been designed for efficiency rather than safety, caused many severe injuries. If workers suffered injuries at the workplace and were unable to work, companies made no reparations, such as paid leave, but rather fired the workers. Companies treated workers like machines, working them long hours (over thirteen-hour work days), and paying them very little. In addition, because of a general lack of windows and heating in factories, physical discomfort and illness caused by extreme heat or cold was the norm.
- 2. How did workers try to change their working conditions?
- Workers attempted to change their conditions by striking, creating unions, sending petitions to the government in hopes of change, and visiting the legislature to plead for change.
- 3. What were trade unions and what did they seek to accomplish?
- Trade unions were groups of workers who united together to lobby for better working conditions, higher wages, and shorter work days. If companies refused to meet their conditions, workers went on strike, refusing to work until their demands were met. Because of their specialized skills, artisans had more pull in strikes than unskilled laborers, who could be easily replaced if they chose not to work.
- 4. What were conditions like for women in the workplace?
- Women suffered conditions in the workplace similar to most workers; however, companies paid them far less for their work than they did male workers. Women did attempt to organize unions to better their condition; however, the government and companies were slow to make any changes.
- 5. How did native-born Americans react to immigrants during this period?
- Many native-born Americans discriminated against the immigrants that poured into the United States during this time, fearing the immigrants because of their foreign customs and the possibility that they would steal jobs from natives. Immigrants were often targeted as scapegoats for the nation’s problems.
- 6. How were blacks treated in the North?
- Although not living under slavery in the South, free Northern blacks still faced prejudice and discrimination from the white population. They were denied the right to vote, to go to school, to own land, to join the military, and even to belong to certain churches. Many blacks often struggled to find work, despite being skilled laborers.
L1, O4: Describe the mainstays of the Southern economy and which factors contributed to the development of a slave culture.
- 1. What problems accompanied cotton production? How were these problems solved?
- The largest problem associated with harvesting cotton was seed removal. Removing the seeds by hand was difficult and wholly inefficient. Eli Whitney solved this problem in 1793 with his invention of the cotton gin, which mechanically removed the seeds from the cotton. One person operating the cotton gin could do the same amount of work accomplished by fifty workers removing the cottonseeds by hand. Plantation owners could now keep up with the demands of the North and Britain and make a huge profit.
- 2. What is the relationship between slavery and cotton production?
- Cotton reigned king in the South because of high demand in the textile industries in the North and abroad in Britain. As the demand for cotton increased, plantation owners needed more and more land and therefore more and more workers to harvest the cotton. They turned toward the cheap labor provided by slavery. The cotton gin specifically caused an increase in slave labor by causing a boom in production, which heightened the need for laborers.
- 3. What other goods did the South produce?
- Although cotton was the most significant mainstay of the Southern economy, other goods were important as well, especially rice, tobacco, sugar cane, and livestock.
L1, O5: Describe the social structure found in the south, particularly the position of African Americans.
- 1. Name and describe the social classes that existed in the South.
- Five groups that constituted Southern society:
- Plantation owners were a very small portion of society (one out of thirty). Although small in number, their ideologies dominated Southern thinking.
- Small farm owners made up 75 percent of the white population. They may have owned a few slaves, but they worked the land with them.
- Poor whites worked land that they rented from big plantation owners.
- Free blacks generally lived close to bordering Northern states.
- Slaves had no rights whatsoever. They made up one-third of the population and worked fourteen- to sixteen-hour days
- 2. Describe the life of a slave.
- Slave codes bound the lives of slaves, depriving them of the most basic human rights and any opportunity to better themselves. The nature of slavery and the view held by Southerners that black marriages were not valid disrupted family life in slave communities. Plantation owners tore families apart, often having family members work on different plantations.
- 3. How did slaves resist enslavement?
- Slaves resisted enslavement in two main ways. They sometimes attempted to rebel by starting revolts or destroying tools. Slaves also attempted to escape to the North; a difficult option given the arduous nature of the journey north and the presence of patrolling groups that were hired to bring in runaway slaves. Slaves could also purchase their freedom, although this was very rare indeed.
A system of producing and consuming wealth (making money).
A device or telecommunications system that sends electrical signals through wire.
Skilled workers who specialize in trade.
L1: Trade unions
Organized groups of workers who negotiate for better wages and working conditions.
When employees refuse to work until certain demands are met by the employer.
An act or policy that denies equal rights to minority groups.
L1: Cash Crop
Crops that are sold for money.
L2, O1: Explain the events and ideas that led to the division of the United States before the Civil War.
- 1. Abraham Lincoln referred to the country as a house divided in 1861. What factors contributed to this division between the North and the South?
- Many factors contributed to the divide between the North and the South; however, the most pressing factor was the differing ideological beliefs in the legitimacy of slavery. The South relied on slavery as the key to its economy because slaves worked the vast and profitable fields of tobacco, sugar cane, cotton, and other crops. Southerners believed that slavery benefited the nation’s economy and that the economy’s success depended on the continuation of slavery. Although many opinions existed, Northerners generally believed that slavery was wrong and immoral. Slavery was part of a larger issue—sectionalism—that had been developing in the United States for many years. Throughout the years, people in different regions began identifying with their distinctive regional characteristics rather than with the nation as a whole. For the North, this meant prizing industry, city life, hard work, and progress. The South valued the rural country life, an agricultural economy supported by slave labor, and traditional values.
- 2. What was the abolitionist cause? What did the most famous abolitionists accomplish?
- The abolitionists sought to stop the practice of slavery, although opinions differed as to the best method to accomplish this. Some believed they should immediately end slavery, while others thought slowly phasing it out would be more effective. Whatever the method, abolitionists advocated an end to slavery. Samuel Cornish and John Russwurm started an abolitionist newspaper, Freedom’s Journal, in 1827; David Walker wrote a stirring appeal to take any necessary actions to end slavery in An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World; Maria Stewart, Sojourner Truth, and Frederick Douglas all gave influential public speeches; and William Lloyd Garrison founded the newspaper The Liberator
- 3. How did both the North and the South react to abolitionist demands?
- Both the North and the South argued various opinions in reaction to the abolitionist cause. The North, in particular, voiced opinions ranging from support to indifference to opposition. Many in the North (particularly those whose livelihoods depended on Southern industry such as mill owners, bankers, and merchants) felt that an attack on slavery was equivalent to an attack on the way much of the nation earned a living. Many also feared that if slavery were abolished, black workers would flood the workforce, taking the place of white workers and driving down wages. In the South, people more or less unanimously believed that abolitionists were not only attacking an institution, but a way and means of life. Southerners disparagingly argued that Northern factories offered worse working conditions than those found in slavery.
L2, O2: Explain the events and ideas that immediately preceded the outbreak of the Civil War.
- 1. What role did California play in the Compromise of 1850?
- The Compromise of 1850 originated when California requested to be admitted to the Union as a free state in 1850. If the Union granted California’s request, the balance between the slave and free states would be upset, giving the free states a majority. A compromise was necessary.
- 2. What arguments did the North and South make concerning the admittance of California to the Union?
- Both the North and South felt justified in claiming California as a free or slave state, respectively. The North argued that most Californian territory lay above the line established in the Missouri Compromise as free, and that to admit it as other than free would violate that compromise. The South argued that having an unequal balance of power between slave and free states would allow the North to override Southern concerns and requests. In response to the North’s claims, the South asserted that each state had the right to secede from the Union, and threatened secession if Congress did not find a satisfactory compromise.
- 3.What five things did the Compromise of 1850 demand?
- The Compromise of 1850 consisted of five different agreements. These agreements admitted California as a free state, designated that popular sovereignty would decide the issue of slavery in Utah and New Mexico, settled the Texas/New Mexico border dispute, instituted the Fugitive Slave Act, which called for the return of runaway slaves to their owners and the formation of a special court to deal with slave cases and returns, abolished the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
- 4. How did citizens resist the Fugitive Slave Act?
- Citizens resisted the requirements of the Fugitive Slave Act by establishing the secret system of the Underground Railroad, which set up routes and means for slaves to escape without detection to the North. Harriet Tubman was one of the most successful conductors of this railroad. Another means of combating the Fugitive Slave Act was writing powerful literature against slavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852, which effectively highlighted the evils of slavery and explained why the abolition of slavery must be seriously considered by all responsible citizens.
- 5. What led to “Bleeding Kansas”?
- “Bleeding Kansas” refers to the conflicts that erupted in reaction to the controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The act called for the Nebraska territory to be divided into two territories (Nebraska and Kansas). Each territory would independently decide on the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty. Violent, underhanded actions ensued, and eventually two governments were established in Kansas. Over two hundred citizens died in the conflict.
- 6. What appeal did Dred Scott make to the Supreme Court and how did the Supreme Court respond?
- Dred Scott, a slave, petitioned the Supreme Court for his freedom because he had once lived in a free state. The Supreme Court decided that no black person could be a citizen of the Union and that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in territories. This decree shocked and angered Northerners.
- 7. What are the origins of the Republican Party? What were the main tenets of their platform?
- The Republican Party (consisting mostly of Northern Whigs and Democrats) emerged out of the Kansas-Nebraska Act conflict and the desire to halt the spread of slavery. The party grew quickly and succeeded in winning the 1860 election.
- 8. Who won the election of 1860, and what occurred immediately following the election?
- In response to Abraham Lincoln winning the 1860 election, South Carolina seceded from the nation, followed shortly by Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Louisiana. These states formed the Confederate States and elected Jefferson Davis as their president. Texas joined the Confederate States just before Lincoln’s inauguration in 1861.
L2, O3: Explain the events and outcome of the Civil War.
- 1. Name several points Abraham Lincoln made in his first inaugural address.
- Lincoln covered many topics in his first inaugural address. Some of the most important included his statement that a war would not start unless initiated by the South, that citizens ought to remember the relationship of friendship that exists between them, and that the Union would last forever provided that citizens continue to follow the principles of the Constitution. Lincoln also promised that he would attempt to maintain control of federal holdings in the South, which were already being seized as he spoke.
- 2. What decision did Jefferson Davis’s seizing of federal forts force upon President Lincoln? What did Lincoln decide?
- Because Lincoln had promised to maintain control of federal forts, Jefferson Davis’s usurpation of these holdings forced Lincoln to decide whether to retake the forts and potentially spark a civil war, or allow the South to take them and thus tacitly agree to their seceding from the Union. Jefferson’s attempt to take Fort Sumter in South Carolina forced Lincoln to respond by sending in federal troops. When Confederate troops fired on Fort Sumter, they started the American Civil War. The Civil War lasted for four years and caused irreparable damage to life and property.
- 3. Name the strengths and weaknesses of the North and South at the beginning of the Civil War.
- The South had the advantages of strong military leadership and the power stemming from their fight for their way of life. The North also had several advantages. It had more citizens who could fight and who could support those people fighting, railroads to transport goods and troops, a strong industry and factories to provide the physical means for the war, a superior naval fleet, and a strong government led by Abraham Lincoln. Overall, the North had far more advantages than the South.
- 4. How were both regions affected by the Civil War?
- The Civil War significantly impacted both the North and the South. The most obvious damage was the staggering death toll that climbed to over 360,000 in the North and 250,000 in the South. In addition, the South incurred extensive property damage and both sides suffered severe economic costs (upwards of twenty billion dollars). Perhaps the most dangerous and costly effect was the rift that developed between the different regions.
- 5. What was the Emancipation Proclamation and what effects did it have?
- Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation two years before the end of the war. The proclamation ended the practice of slavery in Confederate territories. It did not physically free any slaves, but it did set a precedent for the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment in subsequent years that officially ended the practice of slavery in America. In response to the proclamation, five hundred thousand slaves fled to the North, bolstering Northern armies. France and Great Britain also refused to aid the South because the Emancipation Proclamation refocused the war on slavery.
L2, O4: Describe the process of Reconstruction in the South.
- 1. Describe the various Reconstruction programs detailed in the text.
- Several groups suggested different Reconstruction programs. Two schools of thought divided these plans. Some felt that the South must be severely punished and that Reconstruction laws ought to be demanding and strict, even punishing. The other group felt that reintegration and making amends between the two regions was most important and thus stressed easier policies. Abraham Lincoln developed a plan called the Ten Percent Plan, which called for the abolition of slavery as well as for at least 10 percent of voters from seceded states to take an oath of loyalty to the Union. Another plan (that was actually adopted by Congress) was the Freedman’s Bureau. It provided amenities for freed slaves and poor whites, including clothing, employment help, schools, and hospitals.
- 2. What measures were taken after the war to deal with the newly freed black slaves?
- Governments took both positive and negative measures to deal with the newly freed slaves. The South set up black codes to limit the privileges extended to blacks, while the federal government passed the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. These amendments called for the abolition of slavery, the extension of citizenship to freed male slaves, and the extension of the vote to this same group.
- 3. Why was Reconstruction not very successful?
- Even though Reconstruction was moderately successful, discrimination still existed and many Southerners returned to the old social order based on white supremacy. The government extended more rights to blacks and the public school system was set up, but many historians wonder if Reconstruction would have been different if Abraham Lincoln had lived.
Those who sought to end the practice of slavery.
L2: Underground Railroad
An association of abolitionists who helped blacks escape slavery through a system of escape routes and hidden housing.
Loyalty to a particular region or to a state (in this case, it was North versus South).
L2: Popular sovereignty
This doctrine gave people living in a newly organized territory the right to decide, through elections, whether or not slavery would be permitted in their territory.
To withdraw formally from a group, organization, or alliance.
L2: Civil War
A war that occurs among people of the same country
The process of delivering someone from slavery.
L3, O1: Examine and evaluate the impact of westward expansion on the United States both socially and economically.
- 1. What was the Homestead Act of 1862?
- The Homestead Act of 1862 opened up the western territories for settlement. This act granted up to 160 acres of land to individuals for a small filing fee and with the stipulation that they would work the land for at least five years. Thousands of Americans and naturalized immigrants flocked to the west to stake their claims.
- 2. Which groups took advantage of the new western territory?
- Several groups took advantage of the newly opened western territory. Miners flocked to California in hopes of striking it rich with the gold rumored to exist in grandiose amounts. After the gold rush of 1849 ended, miners sought gold, silver, and other precious materials elsewhere, eventually finding success in Montana, Idaho, Colorado, the Sierra Nevada, and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Cattle ranchers also took advantage of the western territories. With the discovery of low-maintenance longhorn cattle on the prairies of Texas, cattle ranchers found a solution to the country’s demands for beef. Finally, immigrants and other Americans took advantage of the opportunities provided by the Homestead Act of 1862 to own and cultivate their own land.
- 3. How did the transcontinental railroad affect the nation socially and economically?
- As a general trend, the railroad opened up space for the establishment of new towns and cities and towns sprang up along the railroad and beyond. The railroad united the nation economically because goods could be transported across the country to supplement other industries or to sell to nationwide markets.
- 4. How did the railroad affect the Native Americans?
- The railroad nearly destroyed the Native Americans, pushing them off their lands and depleting their primary natural resource, bison. Hunting bison became a popular sport along the railroad. Bison were integral to the Native American way of life not only as a source of food, but because they provided material for tools. The railroad contributed to the destruction of the traditional Native American way of life, and Native American attacks on the railroad justified their removal to reservations, where they continued to suffer from displacement.
L3, O2: Describe the emergence of big business in the expanding American economy and identify its effects on American society.
- 1. What state were most businesses in after the war? What changed this state of affairs?
- After the Civil War, most businesses were unable to expand because of a general lack of capital and potential markets in which to sell goods. Hand-production also limited the amount of goods that could be produced. These circumstances changed with the advent of machinery. Machines replicated processes that had been previously done by hand. Workers were reassigned to specific and highly limited jobs in the production process. In addition to these changes, companies also began acquiring capital through the developing free-enterprise system. Stockholders invested money in hopes of earning dividends on their investments while their funds were being used to expand businesses. All of these factors worked to expand American industry.
- 2. Describe the free enterprise system and its relation to capital.
- A corporation is a business owned by investors. Corporations sell stock to stockholders who want to invest in the business. The money earned from the sale of stocks is then used as capital to expand the business. Sometimes, for example, the business is expanded by buying new factories or hiring more employees. As the corporation earns money, the profit is distributed among the investors. Investors essentially take immediate monetary risks to earn large dividends. The advent of this system revitalized American industry after the Civil War.
- 3. What advance in technology made the widespread use of steel possible? In which industries was it used?
- Although we won’t go into the details, William Kelly and Henry Bessemer discovered a steel-making process that made manufacturing steel far cheaper and easier than it previously was. Because steel had been so expensive to make, industries had used iron, a weaker metal, to produce their goods. After the discovery of this new process, industries immediately began utilizing steel in incredible amounts. The railroad industry sparked and fueled the steel industry and railways spread all over the nation. Construction companies also relied heavily on steel for manufacturing materials like nails, screws, and needles.
- 4. Who emerged as the great oil businessman during this period? How did he accomplish such success?
- John D. Rockefeller emerged as the most famous oil businessman of his time. While many immediately started drilling for oil after its discovery, Rockefeller built an oil refinery instead because he knew that oil without the refining process is worthless. This brilliant move gave Rockefeller the head start he needed. With his vast profits he bought other refineries and eventually consolidated them into one large company (a trust) called the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. In this way, Rockefeller established a monopoly over the industry and earned vast amounts of money in the process.
- 5. What were the pressing problems for industrial workers at this time?
- Industrial workers were confronted by problems similar to those experienced in the past—poor and dangerous working conditions, low salaries, and long hours. Child labor became a particularly pressing issue at this time because children were exploited in factories and sweatshops for cheap labor. As in previous times, workers were mostly helpless in the face of these challenges. With the drop in prices that occurred after the advent of mass production, many workers also lost their jobs.
L3, O3: Identify inventions created following the Civil War and how they affected the United States both socially and economically.
- 1. What inventions were introduced during this period? What were their functions?
- Inventors introduced many new creations during this time period: Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, which conducted a human voice over electrical wires, Thomas Edison invented the lightbulb, the phonograph, and most importantly, the electric power plant, which enabled electricity to power homes and businesses, Henry Ford and Ransom Eli Olds were the first to mass-produce the automobile, making it available and affordable to a larger sociological class, Orville and Wilbur Wright were the first to successfully fly an airplane.
- 2. How did the moving assembly line change American industry?
- The moving assembly line changed American industry. Workers stayed in one place and assembled the products as a conveyer belt moved the pieces from station to station. This method lowered the price of assembling products and allowed for mass production.
L3, O4: Describe how culture changed in America during the industrial era.
- 1. Describe the immigrant culture that emerged during this period of time and how Nativists reacted to immigrants in general.
- The immigrants who flooded the country at this time arrived mostly from Italy, Poland, Greece, Russia, Hungary, China, Japan, Korea, India, and the Philippines. Most of them did not speak English and struggled to adapt to a new way of life. They formed insular ethnic neighborhoods where they maintained their old cultures, spoke their old languages, made their own authentic foods, and celebrated their traditional holidays. Nativists reacted poorly to immigrants and pressured the legislature to make laws regulating immigration.
- 2. Describe the three main sociological groups and where they lived in relation to the city.
- American society was essentially divided into three different groups. At the top of the ladder were wealthy people who lived in huge mansions on the outskirts of the city. The middle class, composed of lawyers, doctors, and skilled laborers, lived closer to the center of the city. The poor and underprivileged were on the lowest rung of the ladder. They lived in slums in the hearts of the cities, where tenement housing was extremely cramped and unsanitary. This group of unskilled laborers worked in the mines, mills, and factories for over sixty hours a week at about twenty cents an hour.
- 3. What did Mark Twain mean when he called this period of American history the Gilded Age?
- Mark Twain called this period of American history the Gilded Age because America seemed to be a land of promise, a golden land of opportunity where even the lowliest of citizens could rise to the top through hard work and industriousness. In reality, however, Twain saw America as a land of false promises, a land of brass rather than gold whose very heart was rotted through with corruption and poverty.
- 4. What forms of entertainment became popular during this period?
- Entertainment in general became very popular during this time. Sports gained popularity in American culture, especially baseball, football, and basketball. Other forms of entertainment like the circus, symphonies (for the rich), vaudeville shows, silent movies, and ragtime also became popular and shaped American culture.
L3: Transcontinetal Railroad
A railroad that connects a continent from coast to coast
Complete or almost complete control of an industry, service, or product
A business that is owned by investors
A building or house that is divided into separate apartments that are rented to separate tenants; in terms of this text, tenement refers to buildings divided into very small apartments that were located in the poor slums in the centers of cities
A license from the government granting the sole right to make, use, or sell some process or invention for a specific period of time
L3: Moving assembly line
Production process where stationary workers assemble a product as it moves along a conveyor belt
The process of absorbing another culture (at times done by force)
Money generally used to establish and improve a business
Holding on to traditions while becoming accustomed to a new culture
- A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
- Size: as appropriate
The movement of people from farms to cities
L4, O1: Identify the political and social reforms that occurred during the Progressive Era.
- 1. What ideas influenced the Progressive ideology?
- Many ideas influenced the Progressive ideology; however, science and religion affected it most significantly. The Progressives sought to find practical solutions to societal problems, and they often drew on sensible answers from science and moral principles derived from Christianity. Many Progressives particularly adhered to the social gospel, which was a movement that believed that the application of Christian principles to social ills (such as alcoholism, poverty, and crime) would yield fruitful social change. Progressives also believed that the government must work for the good of the people and enact legislation to that end. The engagement of government with the problems found in its society had to be in place before any significant change could occur. Progressives also believed in the power of effective education to teach principles and problem-solving skills to upcoming generations in order to positively influence society.
- 2. Why did the Progressives feel that the government needed reform?
- Because Progressives desired the government to play a key role in societal reform, a healthy, functioning government seemed necessary. Unfortunately, at the time, many city governments suffered severely from the corruption of political bosses who held high positions and bribed the populous with jobs, food, and goods in exchange for their political support. These bosses often embezzled prodigious amounts of money from their cities. One boss, William Tweed of New York City, stole over two hundred million dollars from the city government, lining his own pockets and those of his followers. Consequently, most governments needed reform in order to function properly in the Progressive paradigm.
- 3. What is a muckraker? Did Upton Sinclair effect any changes through his writings?
- Muckrakers were writers and journalists who took it upon themselves to expose as many corrupt and scandalous members of government and industry as possible. Upton Sinclair, who blew the whistle on the meatpacking industry and the working conditions of poor laborers, influenced the formulation and passing of the Meat Inspection Act and the organization of the Food and Drug Administration with the gruesome facts contained in The Jungle. Sinclair, who had hoped to spread socialism through his novel, said, “I aimed at the public’s heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach.” Upton Sinclair, commenting on his novel The Jungle (1906).
- 4. What political reforms occurred during the Progressive Era?
- Many political reforms occurred during the Progressive Era, mostly dealing with the increase in direct democracy, or the immediate interaction of citizens with the government. These reforms include the following: Robert La Follette’s proposal that political party members vote in a primary election for the candidate he or she would like to run in the general election. Recall, which is voting to remove a person from office. Referendum, which is an option for voters to demand that a particular bill or statute appear on a ballot for the consideration of the people. Initiative, which is the ability of voters to petition the state government to force a vote on a proposed statute or bill. The lowering of taxes on imported goods to increase competition and lower prices. Two additional amendments to the Constitution were passed—the Sixteenth Amendment allowed for Congress to institute an income tax, and the Seventeenth Amendment provided for the direct election of senators through voters
- 5. Who were the Progressive presidents? What policies did they enact?
- Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson are the three presidents considered to be Progressives. Although the text does not elaborate on the Progressive policies of Taft and Wilson, they played important roles in key Progressive legislation. Wilson’s role in creating the Federal Reserve Act, as well as granting women the vote, is noteworthy. The most famous Progressive by far, however, is Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt did much to control trusts and monopolies (which is why he was dubbed a trustbuster), establish equal opportunities for both the poor and the wealthy (through his Square Deal), regulate railroads, legislate improvements for consumers (the Meat Inspection Act and the FDA), and establish the National Park System. He succeeded in enacting practical policies to improve society and consequently was a most beloved president.
- 6. What advances did the women’s suffrage movement make during this time? What about the temperance movement?
- Through the concerted efforts of the National Woman Suffrage Association, led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, women gained the vote through the Nineteenth Amendment, which passed in 1919. The temperance movement, which sought to ban the production and sale of alcoholic beverages, succeeded in pushing their principles into law with the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, also in 1919.
L4, O2: Explain how the United States became a world power during the early nineteen hundreds.
- 1. What various stages of “isms” did the United States progress through in its foreign policy?
- The United States maintained a policy of isolationism in its foreign affairs for a substantial period of its history. Instituted by George Washington, this policy called for an absolute distance from foreign affairs so the country would not become embroiled in the wars that constantly consumed various areas of the European continent. With the onset of the westward movement, citizens began to desire the expansion of American borders. Consequently, the United States adopted a policy of expansionism in hopes of increasing their territorial holdings while still maintaining political aloofness. Under this policy, the United States expanded all the way to the Pacific Ocean and gained the Alaskan territory from Russia. This policy soon developed into imperialism. Countries worldwide raced to acquire territories and colonies abroad in order to tap their natural resources, dominate their economies (and thus expand their own), and replace their primitive cultures with “more sophisticated” ones (i.e. their own cultures). During this period the United States managed to institute an Open Door policy in the heavily-competed-for China, as well as gain territory in Samoa and Hawaii.
- 2. How did the United States start the Spanish-American War? What was the outcome of the war?
- The United States started the Spanish-American War in response to the destruction of its ship, the Maine, in Cuba. The weakened Spanish government had long been struggling to keep its territories abroad. Cuba’s desire to have independence from Spain only augmented these problems. Given America’s proximity and penchant for helping Latin American countries gain independence, Cuba looked to the United State for assistance against Spain. In response, the United States sent the Maine to protect American citizens and property. With the explosion of the Maine and the consequent fatalities on February 15, 1898, the media began pushing for the declaration of war. Congress agreed and declared war on April 25, 1898. The United States quickly won the war, and through the resulting Treaty of Paris, gained Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. Cuba also received its independence.
- 3. Why did Theodore Roosevelt want a canal through Panama and how did he come to build and subsequently protect it?
- Theodore Roosevelt wanted a canal through the Isthmus of Panama because such a route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean would cut eight thousand miles off the voyage from New York to San Francisco. Such a canal would also significantly reduce shipping costs, as well as provide an efficient and quick way for battleships to move from the Atlantic to the Pacific (or visa versa) in the case of war. Roosevelt initially attempted to build the canal by asking Colombia (which controlled Panama at that time) for permission, only to have Colombia deny the request. Consequently, Roosevelt decided to help Panama gain its independence from Colombia in exchange for rights to the Panama Canal Zone. This plan succeeded and the canal opened in 1914. In order to protect the canal and preserve the U.S. interests in Latin America, Roosevelt subsequently decreed that the United States had the right to preserve law and order in Latin America. This policy was observed and continued by Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy.
L4, O3: Describe the causes, events, and results of World War I during U.S. involvement.
- 1. Why did the United States move from a policy of neutrality to aggression in World War I?
- Although the United States attempted to remain neutral during World War I, circumstances eventually forced it to enter the conflict. One of the main reasons was Germany’s refusal to remain passive on the seas. The sinking of the British ship Lusitania and the consequent deaths of one thousand civilians enraged the United States. Although Germany promised not to sink any more civilian ships, it continued to provoke the United States’ ire by sinking merchant ships and being generally aggressive. Other factors also contributed. America discovered a communication from Germany to Mexico that urged Mexico to attack or invade the United States. In addition to problems stemming from German aggression, the outbreak of revolution in Russia also encouraged the United States to join the Allied powers. A more democratic system in Russia would allow the United States to be its ally without the barrier of ideological differences.
- 2. What type of warfare was used during World War I? Was it effective?
- The countries that fought in World War I utilized trench warfare in their combat tactics. In this method of battle, opposing sides dig trenches across from one another and then alternately attack. During World War I, disease and extreme cold, as well as the slaughter produced by the attacks, caused very high death tolls without the advantage of gaining much ground.
- 3. What role did propaganda play in World War I?
- Propaganda played a key role in World War I in several capacities. Governments utilized propaganda to encourage their soldiers to enlist, depicting the atrocities of other nations and the loyalty and bravery of their own. The American Food Administration led by Hoover used propaganda to encourage a higher yield of crops and a lower level of national food consumption to support the war effort. The government also used propaganda to sell Liberty Bonds to raise money for the war.
- 4. What did the United States do to prepare to enter the war?
- The United States instituted several programs to prepare for the war, mostly focusing on manpower, supplies, and funding. Initially, even before the declaration of war, Wilson enlarged and strengthened the military. This expansion was furthered when, on the declaration of war, the draft enlisted three million American soldiers to fight (on top of the two million who voluntarily enlisted). Wilson also created the War Industries Board, which encouraged mass production and standardization, established quotas, and allocated raw materials. To make sure the workers continued to work (rather than strike), he also created the War Labor Board, which settled wage and working hour disputes. The Food Administration also encouraged an increase in agricultural yield as well as a decrease in the amount of food consumed nationally. Finally, the government instituted Liberty Bonds to fund the war.
- 5. Explain Wilson’s peace plan, called the Fourteen Points. Did the Allied nations adopt this plan?
- Wilson’s peace plan, the Fourteen Points, included measures to prevent further conflict. These measures included disarmament, freedom of the seas, free trade, the abolition of secret treaties, and so forth. It also included the creation of a peace organization, called the League of Nations, which was later incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. The Allied powers rejected Wilson’s plan in favor of a plan that allotted them more territory and war reparations form Germany. Ultimately, the United States did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles and did not join the League of Nations.
- 6. What were the costs of the war?
- The cost of World War I encompasses far more than the literal cost, or the extraordinary amounts of property damage that resulted. The cost in human lives and suffering cannot be calculated. Nearly nine million soldiers lost their lives, and countless civilians died as well (estimates are around five million). The resulting disease, starvation, homelessness, scores of orphaned children, and so forth continued to ravage the involved nations for years after the final battles.
L4: Political bosses
Powerful politicians who controlled the workforce through bribery
Journalists who sought out and exposed corruption and abuses in society
A policy of extending a nation's boundaries
The right to vote
A policy that advocates avoiding involvement in world affairs
Using military strength to exercise political or economic control over a weaker country
Information that is disseminated about an institution or individual to influence opinion in order to promote a particular response
A temporary agreement to stop fighting
L5, O1: Identify how the United States came to prosper during the 1920s and what challenges were faced in that process.
- 1. What economic challenges did the United States face after World War I?
- After World War I, the economy struggled to transition from producing huge amounts of wartime goods to producing consumer goods. Because fewer consumer goods were needed in comparison to wartime goods, fewer employees were needed in factories to meet demands. Job shortages ensued and a general economic recession followed. The farming community also suffered in the transition from producing the extensive amount of goods demanded during the war to the smaller amount of goods needed after the war. This transition caused a huge excess of agricultural goods, which flooded the American market. Farmers were unable to pay back the loans that they had incurred to purchase machinery and land to meet the higher demands of the war.
- 2. Describe the type of men Harding chose for his cabinet and how this impacted his presidency.
- Voters put Warren Harding in office in hopes that he would solve the economic problems associated with the previous democratic administrations. Harding’s administration, however, is not known for curing the economy, but rather for a series of scandals that occurred during and after Harding’s years in office. Although Harding was honest and hardworking, the majority of the men he placed in his cabinet were not (excepting Melon and Hoover, who accomplished noteworthy feats in the areas of foreign trade and lowering taxes). The most famous incident of Harding’s administration is the Teapot Dome Scandal.
- 3. How did the nation reach economic prosperity during Coolidge’s presidency?
- Coolidge recognized the dependency of the American economy on the success of business and worked to help industries transition from a wartime economy to producing consumer goods. He successfully did so, and American incomes rose. The consumer economy became prosperous with the production of new and increasingly popular household goods. Stocks were also introduced during this time; they enabled consumers to buy on credit and allowed businesses to grow from capital gained from investors.
L5, O2: Describe what Prohibition attempted to accomplish and the reasons for its failure.
- 1. What was Prohibition and what did it hope to accomplish?
- Prohibition was a period in the United States from 1920 to 1933 during which the production, sale, and consumption of alcohol was strictly forbidden. Prohibition was established with the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment and further enforced by the Volstead Act. The government and supporting populous hoped that Prohibition would raise the general moral standards of society, improve family life, and eliminate many social ills, such as drunkenness and abuse. Prohibition was repealed with the passing of the Twenty-first Amendment in 1933.
- 2. What were some of the negative effects of Prohibition?
- Prohibition caused alcohol production, dispersion, and consumption to go underground. Illicit bars called speakeasies served smuggled or illegally produced alcoholic beverages. Speakeasies became very popular during this period and in some ways encouraged drinking with their aura of rebellion and surreptitious pleasure. As speakeasies and bootlegging became popular, so did organized crime.
- 3. Why did Prohibition fail?
- Given the widespread nature and high number of violations, Prohibition was ultimately impossible to enforce. The government employed federal agents to shut down speakeasies and organized crime, but these organizations ultimately proved ineffective
L5, O3: Describe the cultural and technological developments of the “new lifestyle” that emerged during the 1920s.
- 1. How did American culture change during the 1920s?
- American culture changed drastically during the 1920s as people continued to move from rural areas to cultural city centers. Entertainment became a huge part of life for Americans and they were enthusiastic about new strains of jazz, innovative dances like the Charleston, movies like The Jazz Singer, sports like baseball, and other fads in fashion. It was a time of relative luxury and a pushing beyond previous boundaries. Women were more liberated and blacks expressed their culture through the art of the Harlem Renaissance.
- 2. What are flappers and how did they become a symbol for change in America?
- Flappers were young women in the 1920s who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, pursued the latest fads in music and fashion, and generally rebelled against traditional social morals. Over time this rebellion against traditional social behavior influenced older women, and women all over the country started wearing makeup, cutting their hair, smoking, drinking illegal alcohol, and wearing less clothing. Flappers became the national symbol of freedom and change in America.
- 3. What technological advances influenced modes of American entertainment?
- Several innovations influenced American entertainment. Listening to the radio became popular during this period as new music and various programs were broadcast into households all over America. Movies, which went from silent to talking, also became the entertainment of choice for many during this time. Finally, the automobile, which became affordable through the assembly line mode of production introduced by Ford, allowed people to be more mobile and seek forms of entertainment farther from home.
- 4. What was the Harlem Renaissance?
- The Harlem Renaissance was a flourishing of black art in the 1920s that developed in Harlem, New York City. Poetry, music, literature, and art produced during this period by black artists examined depths of black identity and issues of racism and prejudice in American culture.
L5, O4: Analyze the causes of the stock market crash of October 29, 1929, and its impact on the U.S. economy and the lives of its citizens.
- 1. What occurred on October 29, 1929? Why did this occur?
- Before Black Tuesday occurred, many investors worried that the stock market’s success would begin to decline. In September, investors began to sell their stocks quickly, which caused stock prices to fall. On October 29, 1929, investors, fearing the recent drops in stock prices, went on a selling frenzy on the New York Stock Exchange. This caused the utter collapse of the stock market and the eventual devastation of the U.S. economy.
- 2. What caused the Great Depression?
- No single factor can be held accountable for the devastating Great Depression that engulfed America from 1929 until 1941. Several factors can be isolated, however. The stock market crash of October 29 functioned as a visible initiatory event; however, several events prior to the crash led to the Depression. The primary cause was the overproduction of goods by farmers and factories. Workers could not afford many goods due to low wages, and as Americans stopped buying goods, factories and farmers produced more than people were able to buy. Factories stopped making money as orders slowed, forcing layoffs and closings. Therefore, a lack of consumerism also hurt the economy. In addition to these factors, the unstable banking system—their indiscriminate giving of loans and inability to make good on money supposedly held in their care—played a significant role in the economy’s collapse.
- 3. What were the effects of the Great Depression?
- The effects of the Great Depression were far-reaching and troubled the very heart of traditional American life. With no investors pouring capital into businesses, businesses floundered and were forced to lay off employees. Many businesses eventually declared bankruptcy. Unemployment ran rampant and forced many into poverty. Families were affected—many children left home and both mothers and fathers traveled in search of work. Many foreign nations suffered economic collapse. The effects of the Great Depression were felt everywhere, from the smallest unit of society to the global community at large.
- 4. What was the Dust Bowl and what factors contributed to the conditions found there?
- The Dust Bowl was a region of the United States (consisting of Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, and New Mexico) that suffered most severely during the drought that consumed the country in the 1930s. Poor farming practices and years of overgrazing in this region caused this disaster by destroying the protective covering of vegetation over the ground, leaving the soil exposed and unprotected against high winds. The winds whipped this loose soil into thick black dust storms that did significant damage to houses, farms, and fences. These hostile conditions forced farmers to abandon their farms and seek employment elsewhere, often suffering from prejudice and low wages in other parts of the country (especially California).
L5, O5: Describe the methods and programs President Franklin D. Roosevelt used to promote economic recovery.
- 1.What was Roosevelt’s New Deal and what were his Three Rs?
- During his first hundred days as president, Roosevelt established fifteen new laws to help the nation recover. It was called the New Deal and consisted of three goals called the Three Rs: economic recovery, relief for the jobless, and reform to avoid a future depression.
- 2.What specific programs did Roosevelt create that fall under the Three Rs?
- Several programs were created to aid in the three-pronged mission of the New Deal.
- Reform: To prevent future economic troubles, Roosevelt created the Emergency Banking Relief Act, which reformed the banking system and forced banks to remain closed unless able to meet the bank patrons’ demands. Later he also created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which caused the government to insure all savings that were placed in banks.
- Recovery: Roosevelt created the National Industrial Recovery Act, which set rules and standards within industries concerning issues such as wages, production, working conditions, and price-cutting.
- Relief: Several relief programs were created to aid the jobless. To promote demand within the agricultural industry, the Agricultural Adjustment Act paid farmers not to grow certain crops and to destroy others. The Civilian Conservation Corps paid laborers one dollar a day to help build bridges, plant trees, and complete other public improvement projects. The Works Progress Administration paid the jobless to build schools, hospitals, and parks. It also paid artists to paint public murals and perform in public theaters.
- 3.What ended the Great Depression?
- Although Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal helped Americans recover, hard times dragged on until World War II. The war promoted a wartime economy once again, which stimulated American prosperity and helped end the Great Depression.
The period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale and production of alcohol for common consumption was outlawed
A temporary economic setback
Property purchased by an investor who shares ownership in a corporation
A person who illicitly smuggles or sells alcohol
Young women who rebelled against traditional ways of life during the 1920s
An activity or fashion that becomes popular relatively quickly, lasts for a while, and then dies out just as quickly
L6, O1: Identify the dictatorial leaders who emerged in the years following World War I and how they rose to power in their respective countries.
L6, O2: Identify events and ideas that led to World War II.
L6, O3: Describe how the United States went from isolationism to entering the war.
L6, O4: Analyze the impact World War II had on Americans, particularly Japanese Americans.
L6, O5: the different turning points in World War II that allowed for an Allied victory.
A form of government in which the state allows for the existence of only one political party to which all other institutions are subordinated; in this system, the government exercises absolute control over almost every aspect of people’s lives
A form of government that emerged from the Italian authoritarian political movement led by Mussolini in the 1920s; its ideologies included a deep concern about race (and racial superiority), nationalism, ideals of strength and power, state control, and the importance of the nation/state/race over the individuals and groups that compose it
L6: Nazi Party
A political party also known as the National Socialist German Worker’s Party, led by Adolf Hitler, whose doctrines focused on the superiority of the Aryan race, totalitarianism, and the expansion of the German state
A person or group of people who is blamed for another person’s or group’s problems
Pacification of tensions (war) thorough conceding to an enemy’s demands
A suddenly launched attack that aims to quickly reduce an opponent’s forces; the literal English translation is “lightning war”
Restrictions placed on the amount of certain goods people can buy
Immigrant day laborers that enter the U.S. legally for seasonal work
A Japanese soldier during World War II who made deliberate suicidal crashes into enemy targets with his plane
L7, O1: Explain the origins of the cold war.
L7, O2: Identify the events of the cold war and how the United States and Germany reacted to those events.
L7, O3: Analyze the conflicts and wars that grew out of the cold war.
L7, O4: Analyze the events and ideas that led to the end of the cold war.
A U.S. policy designed to stop the spread of Soviet influence (communism)
A political ideology that calls for a state of society in which there is no private ownership; all property is owned by the greater community to be distributed by the government, and all citizens labor for the common good rather than personal gain, each working to his capacity and receiving according to his needs. Under Marx and Lenin, communism emphasized the role of the party in organizing the political and economic aspects of the state, as well as the need of the lower working classes (the proletariat) to overthrow capitalism to attain the ideal classless communist society
L7: Satellite Nation
A nation controlled politically and economically by a more powerful nation
A nation with a dominant position in world politics with sufficient military, economic, and political strength to influence the rest of the world
A person forced to reside away from his native land; one who is banished
L7: Guerilla Warfare
Hit-and-run tactics carried out by small bodies of men acting independently
Willfully giving false testimony or evidence under oath
A policy to reduce tension between two countries
L8, O1: Describe how life changed economically, socially, and technologically after World War II.
L8, O2: Identify and describe the events, ideas, and people associated with the civil rights movement.
L8, O3: Describe the policies and occurrences during the presidencies of John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter.
L8, O4: Describe the policies and occurrences during the presidencies of Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.
L8: Affirmative Action
A program that ensures the absence of discrimination on the part of employers and educators in the recruitment and hiring of women and members of minority groups
L8: Counterculture Movement
A radical culture composed of people, especially young people, who reject traditional American values and culture
To refuse to buy or use a product or service
The bringing of previously discriminated against racial or ethnic groups into equal membership in society
The enforced separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Being charged with a crime or misdemeanor; removal of a public offical from office for misconduct
A sharp and sudden rise in prices and a decline in the value of money
A temporary economic slump, shorter and less extreme than a depression.