The process by which sounds are transmitted from the environment to our brains.
Sensory translations of environmental signals.
The external ear.
external auditory meatus
The auditory canal which is approximately one inch in length and terminates at the eardrum.
The hammer, anvil and the stirrup; three small bones, each about the size of a grain of rice, which, through lever action, transmit and increase sound pressure as it travels through the middle ear.
A tube between the nasopharynx (throat) and the middle ear which keeps air pressure inside the middle ear equalized with that outside.
The organ of hearing in the inner ear. It's a coiled tube within a tube, which transduces and encodes mechanical vibrations into electro-chemical neurological signals.
The area in the base of the cochlea which translates between the semicircular canals and the cochlea.
The semicircular canals, attached to the hearing apparatus, give feedback on one's balance.
The anatomical name for the eardrum.
That portion of the hearing process which deals with the location of sounds in space by the use of our ears.
The membrane between the footplate of the stapes of the middle ear and the scale vestibuli of the inner ear.
An apparatus that converts one form of energy into another form; in this case mechanical energy (vibration) into electrochemical signals. Another good example of a transducer is the speaking unit (microphone) in the telephone.
A seawater-like fluid in the scala vestibuli, helicotrema, and scala tympani of the cochlea.
From the Latin "apex" meaning tip or end. In the cochlea, the small end in the center of the coil. The opposite end from the cochlear base.
The membrane separating the middle ear cavity from the scala tympani of the inner ear. The membrane is flexible and will be in opposite phase with the oval window when a tonal stimulus is present.
The upper level of the cochlea bordered by the oval window at its inception, the helicotrema at the apex, the cochlear wall, and Reissner's membrane. The scala vestibuli is filled with perilymph.
A narrow opening at the apical end of the cochlea joining the scala vestibuli from the scala tympani.
The lower level of the cochlea bordered by the helicotrema at the apical end, the round window at the base, the cochlear wall, and the basilar membrane. The scala tympani is filled with perilymph.
A tube within a tube lying between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. It contains endolymph and houses the Organ of Corti. Along its lower wall is the basilar membrane. Its upper wall Reissner's membrane.
The fluid in the cochlear duct.
Organ of Corti
The organ which contains about 23,500 hair cells. Corti's organ is supported by the basilar membrane which, when deformed by pressure, stimulates the hair cells to trigger nerve impulses.
The membrane which divides the scala tympani from the cochlear duct. It is this membrane which supports the organ of Corti.
The microscopic "hairs" of the hair cells extending through the reticular membrane. There are approximately fourteen cilia atop each hair cell.
The membrane covering the hair cells, yet allowing the cilia to extend upward through it.
A membrane extending across the top of Corti's Organ. When the cilia are deformed by being compressed against this membrane, the hair cells stimulate the auditory nerve to "fire".