our private inner experience or perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings
Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman aminals
Cue question 1: What are the bases of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings, or our subjective sense of self?
psychologists know that all of our subjective experiences arise from the electrical and chemical activities of our brains.
Cue question 2: how does the mind usually allow us to function effectively in the world?
the function of the mind is to help us do what we have to do in order to prosper, such as acquiring food, shelter, and mates.
Cue question 3: why does the mind occasionally function so ineffectively?
the mind often trades accuracy for speed and versatility
Plato argued in favor of Nativism.
the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn
Vocab: Philosophical empiricism
Aristotle believed that a child's mind was a blank slate, on which experiences were written.
the philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience.
A now defunct theory
that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain
the study of biological processes, especially in the human body
sensory input from the environment
vocab: reaction time
the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus
a person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind
the subjective observation of one's own experience
the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
Who is the Father of Psychology?
first to teach a university course in physicological psychology.
came out with a book physiological psychology in 1874
opened the first laboratory devoted to psychological studies (1879) which marked psychology as an independent field of study
what is the perspective of structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt developed this prespective
1) believed that psychology should study consciousness- mind
2) believed that scientific laboratory was the best method to use to study the mind
3) borrowed from chemistry, in trying to break consciousness down into elemental sensations and feelings
4) used the method of introspection,which involved the research participants reporting their own experience upon being presented with a stimulus (such as a color or sound)
the fundamental problem with his perspective is that the observations couldn't be replicated
what is the perspective of functionalism?
William James developed this prespective
1) he agreed with wundt, that psychology should be studying the consciousness-mind
2) he believed that it should be studied using the rational method - setting out to understand the functions of mental processes and what they served
3) he borrowed from biology, he used Darwin's principle of natural selection, and reasoned that mental abilities must have evolved because they were adaptive, and helped people solve problems and increased their chances of survival....
4)he reasoned that consciousness must serve an important biological function and that the task for psychologist was to understand what those functions are.
Vocab: Natural selection
Charles Darwin's theory that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations.
a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences.
Patients became blind, paralyzed, or lost their memories, even though there was no known physical cause of their problems.
what was the connection that french surgeon Paul Broca demonstrated while conducting research in the 1800's
a connection between the mind and the brain
what was the subject of the famous experiment conducted by Herman Von Helmholtz
he recorded Reaction Time by applying stimuli to different parts of the legs
what is the approach that wundt and his students sought to analyze the basic elements that constitute the mind called?
what was the approach that William James used to study how mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment?
The part of the mind that operates outside of the conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions
Vocab: Psychoanalytic theory
Sigmund Freud's approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
Vocab: Psychoanalysis (Psy-cho-ana-lysis)
A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological discorders
Vocab: Humanistic Psychology
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings.
pioneered by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
What did French physician Jean-Martin Charcot study about people in order to understand Human behavior
he studied patients with psychological disorders
what did Sigmund Freud develop from building on the work of Charcot?
what is the perspective of Psychoanalysis
1) Psychoanalysis believed that psycholoy should study the unconscious mind
2) used a therapeutic approach (clinical method)
3) Borrowed from medicine, specifically borrowed from physician Jean-martin Charcot and his work on hysteria
4) assumed that problems and troublesome behaviors are produced by unconscious forces
5) Developed by Sigmund Freud
what is the psychological theory that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings known as?
what is the perspective of humanism
1) believed that psychologists try to understand human nature as a whole
2) they used the Rational method, humanistic therapists sought to help people realize their full potential
3) philosophy, business, viewed people as "clients" not as patients
4) assumed that people weren't prisoners of events, but that people need to develop, grow, and attain their full potential
5) was developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
an Approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior
an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus
the consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again
what is the perspective of Behaviorism
1)behaviorist advocated that psychologist should study observable behavior
2) they focused only on what can be studied, and used all of science
3) borrowed from nature
4)the central premise is that free will is an illusion, and that we are actually responding to present and past patterns of reinforcement
5) devolped by Ivan Pavlov, john watson, and b.f. skinner
what does the study of behaviorism involve?
it involves observable actions and responses
what did the experiments of Ivan Pavlov and John Watson center on?
stimulus and response
who developed the concept of reinforcement?
B. F. Skinner (with his Skinner Box where rats learn to press a lever to receive food)
Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality
Vocab: Gestalt psychology
A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
Vocab: Cognitive Psychology
The scientific study of mental processes, including perception, though, memory and reasoning
Vocab: Behavioral Neuroscience
An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
Vocab: Cognitive neuroscience
a feild that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
Vocab: Evolutionary Psycholoty
A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection
what is the study of mental processes such as perception and memory is called?
The use of scanning techniques to observe the brain in action and to see which parts are involved in which operations helped the development of
what function of the minds and brain serve that is central to the evolutionary psychology
Vocab: Social Psychology
a sub-field of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior