BI0004 - Lecture 3 - Heterotrophs

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james14hunter
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BI0004 - Lecture 3 - Heterotrophs
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2014-02-18 07:26:08
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BI0004 - Lecture 3
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  1. How many amino acids to animals require?
    20
  2. How many amino acids are synthesized from molecules in a diet?
    About half
  3. What are "Essential Amino Acids"?
    Ones which must be obtained from food in preassembled form.
  4. What is malnutrition: "Protein deficiency"?
    A diet that provides insufficient essential amino acids
  5. What are the 4 classes of essential nutrients?
    • Essential amino acids
    • Essential fatty acids
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
  6. What can food be used for?
    • Self
    • Peer group / Colony
    • Offspring
    • Storage
  7. What is the basic principle for the acquisition of food?
    Net energy gain from food must be greater than the energy expended from acquiring food.
  8. Food must either be?
    • Easy to harvest/hunt/catch
    • Easy to find
    • Easy to digest
    • Very nutritious
  9. What are the 4 main feeding strategies?
    • Suspension feeders - Sift small particles from the water. Eg. Humpback whale
    • Substrate feeders - live in or on their food. Eg. Caterpillar
    • Fluid feeders - Suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host. Eg. Mosquito
    • Bulk feeders - Eat relatively large pieces of food. Obtaining food is often difficult. High nutritional content. Diet is usually varied. Eg. Majority of animals
  10. What Methods are there of finding food?
    • 1. Opportunism - Bacteria, Fungi, Spores in air.
    • 2. Chemotaxis - a. Smell - Bloodhound. b. Taste - Snake tongue
    • 3. Phototaxis - Sight - Hawk, light receptors on single celled organism
    • 4. Thermotaxis - snakes, ticks, lice
    • 5. Hearing - Bats
    • 6. Touch - Spiders
  11. How do primary consumers usually acquire food?
    Food is normally cessile. Grazing.
  12. How do secondary/tertiary consumers usually acquire food?
    Food is normally mobile. Hunting, Harvesting.
  13. What is active acquisition of food?
    • Foraging
    • Locating
    • Hunting
    • Chasing
    • Ambushing
  14. What is Semi-passive acquisition of food?
    • Building structures for trapping/snaring.
    • e.g Webs, Pits
  15. What is passive aquisition of food?
    • Allowing prey to contact body
    • e.g Tentacles, stingers, filters
  16. Physical adaptions of suspension feeders for acquiring food?
    • Baleen Plate - Humpback Whale
    • Net - African Filter Shrimp
    • Filter - Basking Shark
  17. Physical adaptions of substrate feeders for acquiring food?
    • Efficient Jaws - Caterpillar
    • Absorption methods
    • Cellular mechanisms - endocytosis
  18. Physical adaptions of liquid feeders for acquiring food?
    • Predatory - leech, tick, mosquito
    • Mutually beneficial - butterfly probiscis
    • Saphorphitic - Fungal hyphae
  19. Physical adaptions of Bulk feeders for acquiring food? (Primary)
    • Teeth (tearing, cutting) - horse, sheep, locust
    • Beak (breaking, shoveling) - Finch, Spoonbill
    • Position of mouth - Giraffe
    • Hands/Feet - parrot, chimp
  20. Physical adaptions of Bulk feeders for acquiring food? (Secondary)
    • Teeth/Fangs/Jaws/Beak
    • Talons/Claws/Pincers
    • Stingers/poisons
    • Cellular Mechanisms/Structures - amoeba, pitcher plant
    • Physical abilities (strength, speed, dexterity)
  21. Behavioral adaptions of suspension feeders for acquiring food?
    • Migration
    • Response to movement in water
    • Diving/fanning techniques
  22. Behavioral adaptions of substrate feeders for acquiring food?
    • Migration
    • Placing of offspring
    • Growth towards food source
  23. Behavioral adaptions of liquid feeders for acquiring food?
    • Migration
    • Life-cycle
    • Opportunism
  24. Behavioral adaptions of bulk feeders for acquiring food? (Primary)
    • Migration
    • Foraging/digging
    • Group behavior
    • Manual dexterity/tools
  25. Behavioral adaptions of bulk feeders for acquiring food? (secondary)
    • Strategy/Surprise
    • Groups
    • Targeting least dangerous (weak/small/young/old/infirm)
    • Trapping
  26. Physiological adaptions of suspension feeders for acquiring food?
    Specialized digestion and delivery
  27. Behavioral adaptions of substrate feeders for acquiring food?
    • Timing of hatching/metamorphosis
    • Rapid Digestion
    • Rapid lifecycle
    • Metamorphosis
  28. Behavioral adaptions of liquid feeders for acquiring food?
    • Specialized digestion
    • Chemotaxis/Thermotaxis
  29. Behavioral adaptions of bulk feeders for acquiring food? (Primary)
    • Group communication
    • Digestive methods
    • Resistance to toxins/damage
  30. Behavioral adaptions of bulk feeders for acquiring food? (Secondary)
    • Triggers - Venus fly trap
    • Smell
    • Sight
    • Hearing
    • Taste
    • Touch
    • Heat
  31. How can animals avoid being eaten?
    6
    • Size - too big to hunt, too dangerous
    • Physical protection - thornes, spines, shell, horns, tusks, bone 
    • Physical abilities - speed, strength, agility, flight, swimming.
    • Behaviour - avoidance, groups, vigilance, warning signals, aggression, nurseries, nocturnal activity, burrowing, "playing dead"
    • Camoflage - Physical appearance, mimicry, hiding, behaviour
    • Physiological adaptations - Taste, smell, poison, protective coverings, defensive chemicals, ability to survive wounding
  32. How does a specific habitat occur?
    • Because the animal is creating an ecological niche for itself through its adaptions.
    • Its nutritional strategy helps define its niche
    • Specialism of food source
    • Adaptation to ecology/behaviour of food source
    • Adaption to avoiding predation
    • Adaption of reproductive strategy

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