biology

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Author:
KaZuma_t3
ID:
260152
Filename:
biology
Updated:
2014-02-04 09:11:01
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biology
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biology
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biology
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  1. define immunity
    the ability to fight infection through production of antibodies
  2. define antigen
    any substance that can cause an immune response
  3. define antibody
    a blood protein that binds to and attacks foreign substances
  4. define plasma
    the clear, straw-coloured fluid component of blood
  5. define pathogen
    viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms that cause disease
  6. define platelet
    a small cell fragment involved in blood clotting
  7. define red blood cells
    cells that carry O2 and CO2
  8. define granular
    consisting of small particles
  9. define agranular
    lacking granules
  10. define white blood cells
    nucleated blood cells that protect the body from disease causing organisms
  11. define Rh factor
    a group of antigens found on the surface of red blood cells
  12. define phagocyte
    a type of cell within the body capable of engulfing bacteria, foreign substance, and cancer cell
  13. define leukocyte
    a nucleated blood cell that protects the body from disease causing organisms
  14. define eosinophil
    a phagocytic white blood cell that releases clot digesting enzymes
  15. define basophil
    a type of white blood cell that releases heparin
  16. define lymphocyte
    type of white blood cell that recognizes and destroys antigens present in body tissue
  17. define neutrophil
    a phagocytic white blood cell that ingests smaller particles
  18. define monocyte
    a phagocytic white blood cell that fights infections in tissue
  19. define erythroblastosis fetalis
    the abnormal presence of immature erythrocytes in the blood
  20. define passive immunity
    a type of immunity that is acquired when a person is given antibodies from the blood of another person or animal
  21. define active immunity
    a type of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies to attack a particular antigen
  22. define agglytination
    the clumping of red blood cells due to antibody-antigen interaction
  23. define macophages
    cells hat ingest large particles to the body
  24. what is the main structural difference between granular cells and agranular cells
    granular cells contain small particles within the cytoplasm while agranular cells lack small particles
  25. what portion of the blood is plasma
    55%
  26. describe plasma
    clear, straw-coloured liquid component in blood that is mostly water and contains dissolved proteins
  27. what are the 3 main functions of blood
    • transportation
    • regulation¬†
    • protection
  28. what is the reaction between antibody and antigen
    agglutination
  29. what are the four blood groups
    A, B, AB, O
  30. how is blood typing done
    by taking a sample of blood and mixing it with antibodies against type A and B blood.  the sample is checked for agglutination
  31. how does vaccination work
    when a dead or weakened virus is injected into the body, the immune system responds to it and produces killer T cells. the person then becomes immune to the virus
  32. describe a red blood cell
    have a protein called hemoglobin which gives RBC its colour. hemoglobin absorbs oxygen from the lungs and releases it throughout the body. RBC lack many organelles and are round, flat and has an indent in the middle
  33. describe white blood cells
    are the defense mechanisms in the body to fight pathogens and foreign substances. there are 5 types of WBC and they contain a nucleus
  34. what are the 4 steps in blood clotting
    • 1. platelets clump at injury site and releases thromboplastin
    • 2. thromboplastin activates calcium and prothrombin to unite and form thrombin
    • 3. thrombin causes fibrinogen to change into fibrin
    • 4. fibrin forms a network that raps RBC and forms a clot

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