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  1. in the united states, drowning is the:
    A. second leading caused of accidental death.
    B. third leading cause of accidental death.
    C. leading cause of accidented death.
    D. fourth leading cause of accidental death
    B. third leading cause of accidental death
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. drowning is the most common in teenagers and in children younger than:
    a. 18 yr of age
    b. 12 yr of age
    c. 8 yr of age
    d. 4 yr of age
    4 yrs of age
  3. which of the following are the major anatomic alterations of the lungs associated with near drowning victims?
    1. consoldation
    2. bronchospasm
    3. increased alveolar-capillary membrane thickness
    5.excessive bronchial secretions
    all the the above
  4. which of the following clinical manifestations are associated with near drowning victims?
    1. frothy, pink sputum
    2. crackles
    3. increased ph
    4. increased sv02
    a. 1 and 2 only
  5. which of the following pulmonary function testing values are associated with near drowning victims?
    1. N or decrease fevt
    2. decreased fvc
    3. decreased rv
    4. n or decreased fev1/fvc ratio
    d. all of the above
  6. a death within 24 hrs from suffocation by submersion in a liquid normally fresh water or sea salt is called:
  7. a survival > than 24hr (or at least temporary) from suffocation by submersion is called:
    near drowning
  8. a nonspecific term from death after 24 hrs from complications from submersion is called:
    secondary drowning
  9. a sudden cardiac arrest on cold immersion is called:
    immersion syndrome
  10. syncope (fainting immediately following removal from cold water is:
    recovery syncope
  11. what can happen when a person is gasping for air, with possible aspirations,and periods of breath holdings?
    apnea (no breathing) can eventually exceed the break point and stimulate hyperventilation, that can cause aspiration and a variable( something that is likely to change) degree of laryngospasm, causing hypoxia and resulting in acidosis, and develop in cardiac arrest
  12. when asphyxia are 85% cases leading to relaxation of the airway before inspiration efforts have stopped (ceased), the lungs fill up with water. this is called:
    wet drowning
  13. what is 15% laryngospasm:
    dry drowning
  14. water amount in the lungs are often:
    1. less than 10ml/kg
    2. almost always less than 22ml/kg
    3. both a and b
    3. both a and b
  15. in young children, how much amount of cold water submersion will stimulate the protective diving reflex and cause apnea, bradycardia, and shunting of blood to the coronary and cerebral circulation that would improve survival
    1. 20c
    2. 30c
    3. less than 10c
    3. less than 10c
  16. what is the most common damage with drowning
    pulmonary edema
  17. cerebral edema causes an increase in:
    Inner cranial pressure (icp)
  18. what are the pathologic changes in the lungs :
    surfactant loss, pulmonary edema, atelectasis, increase icp, v/q mismatch, hypoxia, bronchospasm,
  19. neurlogic changes in the central nervous system(cns) injury accounts for what % of sequelae greater than 30 days:
    1. 30%
    3. 90%
    3. 90%
  20. what is secondary to hypoxia or hypotension neurological changes
    renal failure (acute renal failure)
  21. what is the most common form of suicide
  22. whom are at risk for drowning
    alcohol use, water sports, unfenced and unsupervised swimming
  23. who is most common for drowning? male or female and black or white?
    • males at 3.3 are greater than females at 1
    • black 2 are greater than white at 1
  24. what percentage of drowning occur in pools and what percentage occur in fresh water
    • pools 50%
    • fresh water 98%
  25. a drowning incident can be managed by :
    1. temp, pulse oximetry
    2. cardiac rhythm
    3. RR pattern
    4. pulm edema
    5. cerebral edema
    6. head/neck injury
    neurologic status
    7. all of the above
    all of the above
  26. what hx information is valuable when managing drowning?
    1. mechanism and duration of submersion
    2. type and temp of the water
    3. time to institution of cpr maneuvers
    4. time to the return of spontaneous cardiac output
    5. any vomiting
    6. all of the above
    6. all of the above
  27. what are good testings that can be managed with drowning?
    1. ecg
    2. blood (abg, electrolytes, renal fx, glucose, osmolarity, alcohol level, cbc)
    3. radiology cxr, c-spine, CT of the head
    4. all of the above
    4. all of the above
  28. what tx or problems associated with drowning can be good care management
    1. cont. cpr
    2. oxygen
    3. hyoglycemia
    4. seizers
    5. if alert watch at least 6 hrs for any pulm edema
    6. cpap/vent w/peep
    7. ng tube for feeding
    8. urinary catheter
    9. antibiotics?
    10. surfactant replacement?
    11. all of the above
    11. all of the above
  29. what is the movement of the hand towards the core example gun shot wound, vegetative state called:
  30. what is the movement when the hands flex away from and bend back and legs are flexed called
    decerebate . ( this is worse than decorticate)
  31. what is a Glasgow coma scale:
    it is a neurological scale that aims to give a reliable objective way of recording the conscious state of a person. from a score of 3-8 and someone has 3 they are said to be in a coma state and no good chance of recovery
  32. what is the prognosis with orlowski scale for pediatric
    1. age less than 3
    2. submersion greater than 5min
    3. cpr delayed greater than 10min
    4. coma on arrival to ED
    5. ph less than 7.1 arrival to ED
    • prognosis:
    • if 1 or 2 above criterial are present then there is 90% of good recovery
    • if greater than 3 above criterias there is 5% chance of recovery :(
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question that help on my drowning test
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