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  1. In the United States, drowning is the:
    a.  Leading cause of accidental death
    b.  Second leading cause of accidental death
    c.  Third leading cause of accidental death
    d.  Fourth leading cause of accidental death
  2. Drowning is most common in teenagers and in children younger than:
    a.  18 years of age
    b.  12 years of age
    c.  8 years of age
    d.  4 years of age
  3. Which of the following are the major anatomic alterations of the lungs associated with near drowning victims?
    1.  consolidation
    2.  bronchospasm
    3.  increased alveolar-capillary membrane thickness
    4.  atelectasis
    5.  excessive bronchial secretions

    a.  3 and 5 only
    b.  2 and 4 only
    c.  3, 4, and 5 only
    d.  1, 2, 3, 4, and 5
  4. Which of the following clinical manifestations are associated with near drowning victims?
    1.  frothy, pink sputum
    2.  crackles
    3.  increased pH
    4.  increases SvO2

    a.  1 and 2 only
    b.  3 and 4 only
    c.  2, 3, and 4 only
    d.  1, 2, 3 and 4
  5. Which of the following pulmonary function testing values are associated with near drowning victims?
    1.  normal or decreased FEV1
    2.  decreased FVC
    3.  decreased RV
    4.  normal or increased FEV1/FVC ratio

    a.  1 and 2 only
    b.  3 and 4 only
    c.  2, 3, and 4 only
    d.  1, 2, 3, and 4
  6. Near drowning refers to the situation in which a victim:
    a.  fails to survive a submersion in liquid
    b.  has dry lungs despite a submersion
    c.  has wet lungs that are dried out during the resuscitation effort
    d.  at least temporarily survives a liquid submersion
  7. What anatomic alterations happen during a wet drowning?
    1.  the victim coughs out any water
    2.  the glottis relaxes
    3.  water enters the airways and alveoli
    4.  inhaled water causes bronchial constriction

    a.  1 and 2 only
    b.  1 and 4 only
    c.  2, 3, and 4 only
    d.  1, 2, 3, and 4
  8. The pulmonary effects of a near drowning victim inhaling water include:
    1.  capillary fluid moves into alveoli
    2.  surfactant production is increased
    3.  pulmonary shunting is increased
    4.  atelectasis develops

    a.  2 and 3 only
    b.  1 and 4 only
    c.  1, 2, and 4 only
    d.  1, 3, and 4 only
  9. Given the following options, which would occur last in a near drowning sequence?
    a.  convulsions
    b.  panic and violent struggle to return to the surface
    c.  swallowing then vomiting large amounts of fluid
    d.  gasping inspirations and aspiration
  10. Which of the following near drowning victims would have the highest chance of survival?
    a.  fresh water
    b.  cold water
    c.  salt water
    d.  warm water
  11. What appears to be the upper limit of survivability of a cold-water near drowning victim?
    a.  60 min
    b.  40 min
    c.  15 min
    d.  4 to 6 min
  12. You have just reached a small child in a swimming pool.  She is not breathing and without a pulse.  As the first responder, you should do all of the following, except:
    a.  remove the child from the water
    b.  call for help
    c.  replace her wet clothes with dry ones
    d.  begin CPR procedures
  13. An ambulance has just transported an apneic near drowning victim to the Emergency Department.  The paramedic is performing bag-mask ventilations for the victim who has a pulse and blood pressure.  As the respiratory therapist, what would you recommend be done?
    1.  initiate mechanical ventilation
    2.  continue bag-mask ventilations
    3.  intubate the victim
    4.  begin chest compressions

    a.  2 only
    b.  2 and 4 only
    c.  1 and 3 only
    d.  2, 3, and 4 only
  14. A near drowning victim is likely to have the following arterial blood gas values:
    1.  decreased PaO2
    2.  decreased pH
    3.  low PaCO2
    4.  high PaCO2

    a.  2 and 4 only
    b.  1 and 3 only
    c.  1, 2, and 3 only
    d.  1, 2, and 4 only
  15. It is now the second day after a near drowning victim was admitted to the hospital.  What chest radiograph findings would be expected?
    a.  cardiomegaly
    b.  fluffy infiltrates
    c.  mediastinal shift
    d.  pleural effusions
Card Set
Questions about the different stages of drowning.
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