Pathophys Test 2 (WBC)

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  1. What is leukopenia? Is it normal?
    • deficiencies in the quality and quantity of leukocytes
    • ALWAYS abnormal
    • Low WBC count predisposes to infections
  2. Wht is leukocytosis? Is it normal?
    • increased numbers of leukocytes
    • a normal protctive physiologic response to stressors
  3. What happens to many nonhematologic malignancies?
    They metastasize to bone marrow, affecting leukocyte production
  4. What is the normal adult ejection fraction?
    Between 50-75%
  5. At what percent of ejection fraction will someone's heart be pumping poorly and what are the signs/symptoms?
    • 35% and below
    • dizzy
    • syncope (passing out)
    • breathless
    • cyanotic lips
    • maybe had a previous heart attack
  6. What does the ejection fraction give a good indicator of?
    How well the left ventricle is pumping out blood
  7. What does an ACE inhibitor do?
    • Turns off the RAAS (inhibits the enzyme) & prevents cardiac remodeling
    • spares kidneys
    • lowers BP
  8. What does the ANS regulate?
    Involuntary controls
  9. What does digoxin do?
    decreases HR
  10. How can you determine the CO?
    SV x HR
  11. Two factors contributing to A-Fib.
    • age
    • prolonged hypertension
  12. What is arcus senillus?
    • A lipid deposit that lines the inside of the eye
    • NORMAL in older adults
    • NOT normal in children (→C.A.D.)
    • *a clinincal manifestation of Myocardial Ischemia
  13. What usually causes the chest pain in angina pectoris?
    Lactic acid build-up
  14. When is CKMB drawn?
    • on admission of chest pain pt
    • after 12 hrs, and 
    • after 24 hrs
    • (is detected 3-4 hrs ater onset; returns to normal after 36-72 hrs)
  15. What is CK?
    • Creatinine Kinase - a protein that rises w/in 4-8 hrs of skeletal muscle trauma.
    • Doesn't always mean MI if elevated.
  16. What is LDH? When is it useful?
    • Lactic Dehydrogenase;
    • rises within 24-48 hrs after MI
    • Useful if pt admitted for CP but had symptoms "a few days ago"
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Pathophys Test 2 (WBC)
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