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Inhibitor of murein polymer synthesis
Active against MRSA
First Choice for treating skin and soft tissue infections
Effective for treating pseudomembraneous colitis
Mutation at the D-Ala-D-Ala binding site leads to resistance against this drug
Treat infections caused by spirochetes (Treponema pallidum)
Used to treat syphilis
Most staphylococci and gonococci and some strains of pneumococci are now resistant to this drug
Treat penicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci that elaborate penicillinase (B-lactamase)
They are not effective against MRSA
Combined with a B-lactamase inhibitor
Active against Listeria monocytogenes and is used to treat meningitis
Can be combined with an aminoglycoside for the treatment of serious enterococall infections, such as enterococcal endocarditis
Ampicillin: an Aminopenicillin
Combined with a B-lactamase inhibitor
This drug specifically is used for prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis in persons with heart valve defects.
Amoxicillin: an Aminopenicillin
Used to treat some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
This drug can be combined with a B-lactamase inhibitor for the treatment of patients with intra-abdominal, skin and soft tissue, lower respiratory tract, complicated urinary tract, and gynecologic infections as well as febrile neutropenia
Enter CNS and are agents used in the treatment of meningitis
Used as a single-dose treatment for gonorrhea
3rd Generation Cephalosporins:
- Cefotaxime: renal tubular excretion
- Ceftriaxone (excreted in bile): used in patients with renal insufficiency
Advanced generation of Cephalosporin
Effective against MRSA
High affinity to PBPa2, a MRSA-specific PBP that has low affinity for other beta-lactam
Used for treating skin and soft tissue infection and community-acquired pneumonia
It is active against many aerobic G- bacteria
It lacks activity against G+ organism and anaerobes
Rarely shows cross-sensitivity with penicillins and cephalosporins and can usually be used in person allergic to other B-lactam antibiotics
Used to treat a wide range of systemic infections, including endocarditis, pneumonia, urinary tract, pelvic, skin and soft tissue, and intra-abdominal infections
B-lactam drugs that inhibit molecular class A B-lactamases
These drugs have no antimicrobial activity by themselves but serve as surrogate substrates for B-lactamases when given with a penicillin antibiotic
Drugs used in the inhibition of bacterial cell-wall synthesis
Drugs used in the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis
Drugs used to inhibit nucleic synthesis
Drugs that inhibit folic acid synthesis
Penicillin used to treat Listeria monocytogenes
Penicillin used to treat Borrelia burgdorferi
Penicillin used to treat H. pylori
Cephalosporins act very similar to Penicillins but they do not cover which organisms?
- Atypicals (Chlamydia, Mycoplasma)
What is given with cilastatin, a renal dehydropeptidase inhibitor?
Which Aminoglycoside is used to treat tubercolosis?
Which antibacterial agents should not be used during pregnancy?
What folic acid inhibitor is generally used to treat urinary tract infections?
Antibacterial agent that is a direct inhibitor of nucleic acid synthesis?
Quinolones inhibit topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase)
What are the primary anti-tubercular drugs?
Inhibitors of polymer synthesis
- Penicillin G
- Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Nafcillin, Oxacillin
- Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Piperacillin, Ticarcillin
- 3rd Generation: Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone
- Advanced Generation: Ceftaroline
End in "penem"
Antibacterials that are highly ionized and poorly absorbed
Poor penetration of the meninges
Must be administered parenterally for the treatment of systemic infections
Aminoglycosides: end in "mycin"
Most commonly used antibacterial agent used in the treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections?
Aminoglycosides: end in "mycin"
Aminoglycoside used to treat tuberculosis
Most active aminoglycoside against strains of P. aeruginosa
Antibacterial agent used in ointments and creams to prevent infections after minor skin trauma
Adverse effect of aminoglycosides?
Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity (problem with hearing)
Class of antibacterials taht bind divalent and trivalent cations
These drugs do not work as effectively when taken with food?
Tetracyclines: end in "cycline"
Drugs of choice to treat Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
Broad-spectrum of drugs that inhibit the growth of many gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, rickettsia, spirochetes, mycoplasmas, and chlamydiae
Tetracylines used to treat skin and soft tissue infections caused by MRSA
Doxycyline and minocycline
Tetracycline used for treating syphilis and malaria
Adverse effects of Tetracyclines?
Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity
Aminoglycosides and other nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided in patients having treatment with these drugs
Tetracycline that can be used with patients with renal insufficiency?
The prototype of macrolides
Azithromycin and Clarithromycin
Class of antibacterials active against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that cause upper respiratory tract infections and pneumonia
Most active macrolide against H.pylori
Adverse effects of macrolides
Jaundice and ototoxicity
Active against gram-positive cocci and anaerobic organism such as Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens
Effective against MRSA
Used for prophylaxis of bacterial endocardiits if allergic to penicillins
Side effect of Clindamycin?
Gastrointestinal super-infections caused by Clostridium difficile
Prevents formation of the 70s initiation complex
Cross-resistance with other class of antibiotics is unlikely
Linezolid is indicated for what?
Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, Pneumonia caused by MRSA and MSSA
30s Protein Inhibitors
Aminoglycosides: End in "mycin"
Tetracyclines: End in "cycline"
50s Protein Synthesis inhibitors
Macrolides: End in "mycin"
Most common compounds for treating human infections include?
Sulfisoxazole and Sulfamethoxazole
What is Sulfamethoxazole administer with to prevent urinary tract infections?
Adverse effect of sulfonamides?
The drug of choice to treat for pulmonary infections caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci?
Quinolone indicated for urinary tract infections?
Most frequently used fluorquinolones used in the USA?
Drug class used to treat bacterial diarrhea and is effective in treating traveler's diarrhea?
Used to treat anthrax?
Adverse effects of fluoroquinolones?
Tendonitis and tendon rupture
Should not be prescribed to adolescents, young children, nursing mothers, and pregnant women
Some fluoroquinolones inhibit P450 which leads to drug to drug interactions
Inhibits the cell membrane of bacteria
Active against some strains of MRSA and VRE
Approved for treatment of MRSA skin and skin-structure infections that are a complication of surgery, diabetic foot ulcers, and burns
Adverse effect of Daptomycin?
Creatine phosphokinase levels should be monitored
End in "oaxcin"
Tuberculosis drug that is activated by mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase, an enzyme encoded by the katG gene
Drug inhibits fatty acid synthetase 2 (FAS2)
Drug used to treat latent tuberculosis
It is also given to prevent TB in neonates and children who have had close contact with persons in who active TB was recently diagnosed
Penetrates inflamed meninges and can be used in the treatment of tubercular meningitis?
Tuberculosis drug used to prevent meningococcal disease in individuals who have had close contact with Neisseria meningitidis
Tuberculosis drug that inhibits arabinosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of arabinogalactan
Adverse effects of ethambutol
Optic neuritis and impaired red-green color discrimination
Most toxic anti-fungal
It is effective against a wide range of fungi
In spite of its toxic potential, this drug is the choice for the treatment of life-threatening systemic mycoses
Antifungal for the treatment of Candida species?
Used to treat fungal blepharitis
Natamycin (topical use only)
Triazole used to treat fungal meningitis?
What class of drugs inhibit CYP3A4 which leads to drug interactions.
Azoles especially Ketoconazole
Used in many systemic fungal infections especially meningitis.
This anti-fungal drug is combined with Amphotericin B because drug resistance develops rapidly when it is administered alone
How do the Polyenes, an antifungal agent work?
Polyenes bind to ergosterol in the plasma membrane of fungal cells and form pores which leads to cell death.
Anti-viral used against HSV and VZV
A guanosine analog that lacks a true sugar moiety, is monophosphorylated in the cell by the herpes virus, encoded enzyme, thymidine kinase
Causes premature DNA-chain termination
The prototypic antiherpetic therapeutic agent
In the IV form it is the most effective treatment for serious herpesvirus infections, including herpetic encephalitis and severe HSV and VZV infections in immunocompromised patients.
The prodrug form of acyclovir
Anti-viral used against CMV diseases, including retinitis, esophagitis and colitis
Pro-drug form of ganciclovir
What types of Anti-HIV drugs have been approved?
Drugs that target:
- Viral attachment
- Reverse transcription
What type of drugs are the foundation of chemotherapy for HIV infection?
Directly inhibit reverse transcriptase
They do not require metabolic activation and they are not incorporated into viral DNA
Antiviral that inhibits the metabolism of other PIs and is often combined with other PIs to increase their plasma levels and duration which is also known as boosted therapy
P450 enzymes (CYP3A4) are inhibited by what anti-HIV drugs?
PIs: end in "navir"
The attachment and fusion inhibitors
They are approved for treatment of HIV infection caused by drug-resistant strains
Binds to HIV glycoprotein 41 and blocks the fusion process of HIV-1
Antagonist of chemokine co-receptor 5 (CCR5).
Binds to CCR5 and prevents interaction with HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 that is necessary for CCR5-tropic HIV-1 to enter cells
First integrase inhibitor
Approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adult patients who have HIV-1 strains that are resistant to multiple anti-retroviral agents and who show evidence of increased viral replication
Drug of choice to treat Hepatitis B
How does Interferon work?
May involve the induction of host cell enzymes that inhibit viral RNA translation, ultimately leading to the degradation of viral mRNA and tRNA
Adverse effect of Interferon
Hepatitis B drugs
In combination with Interferon-alpha-2b it is effective in chronic hepatitis C
What compound is ribavirin converted which blocks RNA-dependent RNA polymerase?
Newly approved hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors
These drugs cannot be used alone
These drugs are combined with interferon and ribvirin
Indicated, in combination with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, for the treatment of genotype chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in adult patients with compensated
liver disease, including cirrhosis, who are treatment-naïve or who have been previously treated with interferon-based treatment, including prior null responders, partial responders, and relapsers.
Tricyclic amine compounds that block M2 proton-selective ion channel and prevent acidification of influenza type A virus and the fusion of viral membranes and endosomes required for uncoating and transfer of viral nucleic acid into the host cell cytoplasm
They are not currently recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza in the United States
Adamantanes: end in "mantadine"
Inhibit the enzyme neuraminidase in influenza A and B viruses
These drugs block the release of the influenza drug from the cell
Are active against essentially all strains of influenza A and B viruses, and they are active against most current strains including influenza A 2009 H1N1, 2009 H3N2, and the H5N1 avian influenza strain
Neuraminidase inhibitors: end in "mivir"
Drugs for Herpesvirus infections
- Acyclovir and Valacyclovir
- Grancivlovir and Valganciclovir
- Penciclovir and Famiciclovir
Drugs for treating hepatitis C
Drugs for influenza
Antiparasitic active against several anaerobic protozoa
Drug of choice for amebiasis, giardiasis, and trichomniasis
Anti-malaria drug that block exoerythrocytic schizogony
Treatment of choice for the prevention of all types of malaria
It must be used with primaquine to eradicate Vivax or Ovale Malaria
Anti-malarial drugs that interfere with heme polymerization
Anti-malarial drug used to prevent the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria
Used to treat falciparum malaria
Artermisinin and its derivatives:
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