Chapter 5

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Chapter 5
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Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur
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Respiratory System
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  1. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid

    *be able to spell correctly
    comprises each gene: genetic material that regulates activities of the cell
  2. atelectasis

    *be able to spell correctly
    incomplete expansion (of a lung or a portion of a lung)
  3. abscess

    *be able to spell correctly
    a localized collection of pus
  4. pneumonia

    *be able to spell correctly
    diseased state of the lung (the infection and inflammation are caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi
  5. nucleus

    *be able to spell correctly
    largest structure within the cell, usually spherical and centrally located.  It contains chromosomes for cellular reproduction and is the control center of the cell
  6. neoplasm

    *be able to spell correctly
    new growth (of abnormal tissue or tumor)
  7. Epigastric region (1)
    superior to the umbilical region, generally above the stomach
  8. bilateral
    pertaining to two (2) sides
  9. pediculosis

    *be able to spell correctly
    invasion into the skin and hair by lice
  10. fissure

    *be able to spell correctly
    slit or cracklike sore in the skin
  11. alopecia

    *be able to spell correctly
    loss of hair
  12. -scope

    suffix
    *be able to spell correctly
    instrument used for visual examination
  13. pertussis

    *be able to spell correctly
    • highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop
    • also called whooping cough
  14. orthopnea

    *be able to spell correctly
    able to breathe easier in a straight (upright) position
  15. aspirate

    *be able to spell correctly
    to withdraw fluid or suction fluid; also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract
  16. Polysomnography
       (PSG)

    *be able to spell correctly
    • process of recording many (tests) during sleep
    • performed to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea
  17. define nose
    lined with mucous membrane and fine hairs; it acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air
  18. define nasal septum
    partition separating the right and left nasal cavities
  19. define paranasal sinuses
    air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities
  20. define paranasal sinuses
    air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities
  21. define pharynx
    • serves as food and air passageway
    • air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx
    • food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus
    • also called the throat
  22. define adenoids
    lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity
  23. define tonsils
    lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth
  24. define larynx
    • location of the vocal cords
    • air enters from the pharynx
    • also called the voice box
    • *identified externally by the "Adam's apple"
  25. define epiglottis
    • flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of the larynx
    • keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing
    • think of a trashcan lid
  26. define trachea
    • passageway for air to the bronchi
    • also called the windpipe
  27. define bronchus

    plural; bronchi
    • one of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides
    • the branchlings resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a bronchial tree
  28. define bronchioles
    • smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree
    • *the bronchioles branch to form microscopic tubes called alveolar ducts. It is from these ducts that the alveoli—clusters of millions of minute air sacs—arise
  29. define alveolus

    plural: alveoli
    • air sacs at the end of the bronchioles
    • oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries
  30. define lungs
    • two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity
    • the right lung consists of three (3) lobes
    • the left lung only has two (2) lobes (because there is not enough room because of the heart)
  31. define pleura
    • double-folded serous (pertaining to serum) membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity with a small space between called the pleural cavity, which contains serous fluid
    • *this folds over to also form the lining of the chest wall. The space separating the layers of the pleura contains a small amount of fluid that helps to keep the lungs inflated and to lubricate the lungs as they expand and contract during breathing.
    • the inner wall is the visceral pleura (visceral means pertaining to internal organs)
    • the outer wall is the parietal pleura (parietal means to wall off)
  32. define diaphragm
    • muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
    • it aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out
    • *actually two smaller convex domes, not a single large dome, when they are in a relaxed state they are convex shaped, when they are in use (contracting) they flatten out
  33. define mediastinum
    • space between the lungs (*it is the central portion of the chest cavity)
    • in contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels and other structures
  34. adenoid/o
    combining form

    adenoids
  35. alveol/o
    combining form

    alveolus
  36. bronchi/o
    bronch/o
    combining form (2)

    bronchus
  37. diaphragmat/o
    phren/o
    combining form

    diaphragm
  38. epiglott/o
    combining form


    epiglottis
  39. laryng/o
    combining form

    larynx
  40. lob/o
    combining form

    lobe
  41. nas/o
    rhin/o
    combining form(2)

    nose
  42. pharyng/o
    combining form

    pharynx
  43. pleur/o
    combining form

    pleura
  44. pneum/o
    pneumat/o
    pneumon/o
    combining form (3)

    lung, air
  45. pulmon/o
    combining form

    lung
  46. sept/o
    combining form

    septum (wall off, fence)
  47. sinus/o
    combining form

    sinus
  48. thorac/o
    combining form

    thorax (chest)
  49. tonsill/o

    *remember for spelling:  tonsil has one letter 'l', the combining form has two 'll's
    combining form

    tonsil
  50. trache/o
    combining form

    trachea
  51. atel/o
    combining form

    imperfect, incomplete
  52. capn/o
    combining form

    carbon dioxide
  53. hem/o
    hemat/o
    combining form (2)

    blood
  54. muc/o
    combining form

    mucus

    *remember this spelling refers to the actual thick slimy fluid
  55. orth/o
    combining form

    straight
  56. ox/i
    ox/o

    **a rare time when a combining vowel, other than the letter 'o' may be used. pay attention to correct spelling of terms with this word root
    combining form (2)

    oxygen
  57. phon/o
    combining form

    sound, voice
  58. py/o
    combining form

    pus
  59. somn/o
    combining form

    sleep
  60. spir/o
    breathe, breathing
  61. a-
    an-

    * used same way like English, an- is used when the word root begins with a vowel
    prefix (2)

    absence of, without
  62. endo-
    prefix

    within

    *intra- also means within
  63. eu-
    prefix

    normal good
  64. pan-
    prefix

    all, total
  65. poly-
    prefix

    many, much
  66. tachy-
    prefix

    fast, rapid
  67. -algia
    suffix

    pain
  68. -ar
    -ary
    -eal
    • suffix (3)
    •               (not al,ic,ous,ior)

    • pertaining to
    •  
  69. -cele
    suffix

    hernia or protusion
  70. -centesis
    suffix

    surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile needle)
  71. -ectasis
    suffix

    • stretching out
    • dilation
    • expansion
  72. -emia
    suffix

    blood condition
  73. -graphy
    suffix

    • process of recording
    • radiographic imaging
  74. -meter
    suffix

    instrument used to measure
  75. -metry
    suffix

    measurement
  76. -pexy
    • suffix
    • surgical fixation
    • suspension
  77. -pnea
    suffix

    breathing
  78. -rrhagia
    suffix

    rapid flow of blood
  79. -scope
    suffix

    instrument used for visual examination
  80. -scopic
    pertaining to visual examination
  81. -scopy
    suffix

    visual examination
  82. -spasm
    suffix

    sudden involuntary muscle contraction (spasmodic contraction)
  83. -stenosis
    suffix

    constriction or narrowing
  84. -stomy
    suffix


    creation of an artificial opening
  85. -thorax
    suffix

    chest
  86. -tomy
    suffix

    cut into or incision
  87. what is the transport vehicle for oxygen O2
    • red blood cells
    • RBC
    • erythrocytes
  88. Explain the difference between internal respiration and external respiration
    • Internal respiration happens in body tissue; it is a drop-off of O2 and a pick-up of CO2
    • involves L atrium and L ventricle, is de-oxyginated blood or rich in CO2
    • the internal respiration (exchange) takes place in the body

    • External respiration happens in the lungs; it is a drop-off of COand a pick-up of O2
    • involves R atrium and R ventricle, is de-oxyginated blood or rich in CO2
    • the external respiration (exchange) takes place in the lungs

    Think: O2 comes to the lungs from outside (externally) and is deposited in the body (internally)
  89. serous
    ser/ous
    • ser- thin watery fluid
    • -ous pertaining to
  90. adenoiditis

    ad-e-noyd-I-tis
    inflammation of the adenoids
  91. alveolitis

    al-ve-o-LI-tis
    inflammation of the alveolus
  92. atelectasis

    at-e-LEK-ta-sis
    incomplete expansion (of the lung or portion of the lung)
  93. bronchietasis

    bron-kee-EK-ta-sis
    dilation of the bronchi
  94. bronchitis

    bron-KI-tis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  95. bronchogenic carcinoma

    bron-ko-JEN-ik / kar-si-NO-ma
    cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus
  96. bronchopneumonia

    bron-ko-nu-MO-nee-a
    • diseased state of the bronchi and lungs
    • usually caused by infection
  97. diaphragmatocele
    di-a-frag-MAT-o-seel
    hernia of the diaphragm
  98. epiglottitis

    ep-i-glo-TI-tis
    inflammation of the epiglottis
  99. hemothorax

    hee-mo-THOR-aks
    blood in the chest (pleural space)
  100. laryngitis

    lar-in-JI-tis
    inflammation of the larynx
  101. laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)

    la-ring-o-tray-ke-o-bron-KI-tis
    • inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
    • the acute form is called croup
  102. lobar pneumonia

    LObar / nu-MO-nee-a
    • pertaining to the lobe(s)
    • diseased state of the lung
    • infection of one or more lobes of the lung
  103. nasopharyngitis

    na-zo-far-in-JI-tis
    inflammation of the nose and pharynx
  104. pansinusitis

    pan-si-nu-SI-tis
    inflammation of all sinuses
  105. pharyngitis

    far-in-JI-tis
    inflammation of the pharynx
  106. pleuritis

    plu-RI-tis
    • inflammation of the pleura
    • also called pleurisy
  107. pneumatocele

    nu-MAT-o-seel
    • hernia of the lung
    • lung tissue protrudes through an opening in the chest
  108. pneumoconiosis

    nu-mo-ko-nee-O-sis
    abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
  109. pneumonia

    nu-MO-ne-a
    • diseases state of the lung
    • the infection and inflammation are caused by bacteria such as Pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus; as well as viruses; and fungi
  110. pneumonitis

    Nu-mo-NI-tis
    inflammation of the lung
  111. pneumothorax

    nu-mo-THOR-aks
    • air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung
    • often a result of an open chest wound
  112. pulmonary neoplasm

    PUL-mo-nar-ee / NEE-o-plazm
    • pertaining to (in) the lung
    • new growth (tumor)
  113. pyothorax

    pie-o-THOR-aks
    • pus in the chest (pleural space)
    • also called empyema
  114. rhinitis
    ri-NI-tis
    inflammation of the (mucous membranes) nose
  115. rhinomycosis

    ri-no-mie-KO-sis
    abnormal condition of fungus in the nose
  116. rhinorrhagia

    ri-no-RA-ja
    • rapid flow of blood from the nose
    • also called epistaxis
    • *nosebleed
  117. thoracalgia

    thor-a-KAL-ja
    pain in the chest
  118. tolsillitis

    ton-sil-I-tis
    inflammation of the tonsils
  119. tracheitis

    tra-kee-I-tis
    inflammation of the trachea
  120. tracheostenosis

    tray-kee-o-sten-O-sis
    narrowing of the trachea
  121. acute
    in reference to disease means sharp, sudden, short, or severe
  122. chronic
    in reference to disease means a disease that continues for a long time
  123. paroxysm
    sudden attacks that come on quickly

    Merriam Webster dictionary: a sudden attack or increase of symptoms of a disease (such as pain, coughing, shaking, etc.) that often occurs again and again
  124. reactive airway disease (RAD)
    • a general term and not a specific diagnosis
    • t is used to describe a history of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath
    • in some people RAD may lead to asthma
  125. influenza pandemic
    • is the sudden outbreak of a flu that becomes very widespread, affecting a region, a continent, or the world
    • examples are H1N1 swine flu and H5N1 avian flu
  126. acute respiratory distress syndrome
    (ARDS)
    • respiratory failure as a result of disease or injury
    • symptoms include dyspnea, tachypnea, and cyanosis
    • also called adult respiratory distress syndrome
  127. asthma
    respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms (sudden attacks) of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks
  128. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    (COPD)
    • a progressive lung disease that restricts air flow, which makes breathing difficult
    • chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two main components of COPD
    • it may also be caused by chronic asthmatic bronchitiis
    • most COPD is a result of cigarette smoking
  129. coccidiodomycosis

    kok-sid-ee-oy-do-mi-KO-sis
    • fungal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body
    • also called valley fever or cocci
  130. cor pulmonale

    kor / pul-mo-NAL-ee
    serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema
  131. croup
    • condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, and stridor (a harsh, shrill, or creaking noise)
    • it may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body
    • occurs mainly in children
  132. cystic fibrosis
    (CF)
    hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms
  133. deviated septum
    one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformation or injury to the nasal septum
  134. emphysema
    stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
  135. epistaxis
    • nosebleed
    • synonymous with rhinorrhagia
  136. influenza
    • highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus
    • also called flu
  137. Legionnaire disease
    a lobar pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila
  138. obstructive sleep apnea
    (OSA)
    • repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing
    • can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure
  139. pertussis
    • highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop
    • also called whooping cough
  140. pleural effusion
    fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma
  141. pulmonary edema
    fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles
  142. pulmonary embolism
    (PE)
    • matter foreign to the circulation, carried to the pulmonary artery and its branches, where it blocks circulation to the lungs
    • can be fatal if of sufficient size or number
    • blood clots broken loose from the deep veins of the lower extremities are the most common source of emboli
  143. tuberculosis
    (TB)
    • an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus
    • most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs
    • causes more deaths worldwide than any other infection disease even though it is preventable and curable
  144. upper respiratory infection
    (URI)
    • infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx
    • commonly called a cold
  145. adenoidectomy
    excision of the adenoids
  146. adentome

    Note: the 'oid' is missing from the word root adenoid in this term
    surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids
  147. bronchoplasty
    surgical repair of a bronchus
  148. laryngectomy
    excision of the larynx
  149. laryngoplasty
    surgical repair of the larynx
  150. laryngostomy
    creation of an artificial opening into the larynx
  151. laryngotracheotomy
    incision of the larynx and trachea
  152. lobectomy
    excision of a lobe (of the lung)
  153. pleuropexy
    surgical fixation of the pleura
  154. pneumobronchotomy
    incision of a lung and bronchus
  155. pneumonectomy
    excision of a lung
  156. rhinoplasty
    surgical repair of the nose
  157. septoplasty
    surgical repair of the (nasal) septum
  158. septotomy
    incision into the (nasal) septum
  159. sisusotomy
    incision of a sinus
  160. thoracocentesis
    • surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity
    • also called thoracentesis
  161. thoracotomy
    incision into the chest cavity
  162. tonsillectomy
    excision of the tonsils
  163. tracheoplasty
    surgical repair of the trachea
  164. tracheostomy
    creation of an artificial opening into the trachea
  165. tracheotomy
    incision of the trachea
  166. bronchoscope
    instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi
  167. bronchoscopy
    visual examination of the bronchi
  168. endoscope

    the current trend is to use endoscopes for surgical procedures as well as for viewing
    instrument used for visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)
  169. endoscopic

    also used to describe the practice of performing surgeries that use endoscopes
    pertaining to visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)
  170. endoscopy

    en-DOS-co-pee
    visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)
  171. laryngoscope
    instrument used for visual examination of the larynx
  172. laryngoscopy
    visual examination of the larynx
  173. thoracoscope

    thor-RAK-o-scope
    instrument used for visual examination of the thorax
  174. thoracoscopy

    thor-a-KOS-ko-pee
    visual examination of the thorax
  175. capnometer
    instrument used to measure carbon dioxide (levels in expired gas)
  176. oximeter

    Note: the combining vowel is 'i'
    instrument used to measure oxygen (saturation in the blood)
  177. spirometer
    instrument used to measure breathing (or lung volumes)
  178. spirometry
    a measurement of breathing (or lung volumes)
  179. polysomnography
    (PSG)
    • process of recording many (test) during sleep
    • performed to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea
    • tests include: electrocardiography, electromyography, electroencephalography, air flow monitoring, and oximetry
  180. sputum
    comes from the lungs, not spit from salivary glands
  181. chest computed tomography scan
    (CT) scan
    • computerized images of the chest created in sections sliced from front to back
    • performed to diagnose tumors, alscesses, and pleural effusion
    • computed tomography is used to visualized other both parts such as the abdomen and the brain
  182. chest radiograph
    (CXR)
    • a radiographic image of the chest performed to evaluate the lungs and the heart
    • also called a chest x-ray
  183. ventilation-perfusion scanning
    (VPS)
    • a nuclear medicine procedure performed to diagnose a pulmonary embolism and other conditions
    • also called a lung scan
  184. acid-fast bacilli smear
    (AFB)
    a test performed on sputum (not spit, comes from lungs) to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which cause tuberculosis
  185. arterial blood gasses
    (ABGs)
    a test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases present
  186. peak flow meter
    (PFM)
    • a portable instrument used to measure how fast air can be pushed out of the lung
    • used to help monitor asthma and adjust medication accordingly
  187. pulmonary function tests

    (PFTs)
    • a group of tests performed to measure breathing and used to determine respiratory function
    • when abnormal, they are useful in distinguishing COPD from asthma
  188. pulse oximetry

    Note: the combining vowel is 'i'
    a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen n the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip
  189. auscultation
    • the act of listening for sounds within the body through a stethescope
    • used for assessing and/or diagnosing conditions of the lungs, pleura, heart, and abdomen
  190. percussion
    • the act of tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath by sound obtained
    • a dull sound indicates the presence of fluid in a body space or cavity such as in the pleural space
  191. PPD (purified protein derivative) skin test
    • a test performed on individuals who have recently been exposed to tuberculosis
    • PPD of the tuberculin bacillus is injected intradermally
    • positive tests indicate previous exposure, not necessarily active tuberculosis
    • also called TB skin test
  192. stethoscope
    • an instrument used to hear internal body sounds
    • used for performing auscultation and blood pressure measurements
  193. acapnia
    condition of absence (less than normal level) of carbon dioxide (in the blood)
  194. alveolar
    pertaining to the alveolus
  195. anoxia
    condition of absence (deficiency) of oxygen
  196. aphonia
    condition of absence of voice
  197. apnea
    absence of breathing
  198. bronchoalveolar
    pertaining to the bronchi and alveoli
  199. bronchospasm
    spasmodic contraction of the bronchi
  200. diaphragmatic

    also called phrenic
    pertaining to the diaphragm
  201. dysphonia
    condition of difficult speaking (voice)
  202. dyspnea
    difficult breathing
  203. endotracheal
    pertaining to within the trachea
  204. eupnea
    normal breathing
  205. hypercapnia
    condition of excessive carbon dioxide (in the blood)
  206. hyperpnea
    excessive breathing
  207. hypocapnia
    condition of deficient carbon dioxide (in the blood)
  208. hypopnea
    deficient breathing
  209. hypoxemia

    Note: the 'o' from hypo has been dropped
    condition of deficient oxygen in the blood
  210. hypoxia
    condition of deficient oxygen (to the tissues)
  211. intrapleural
    pertaining to within the pleura (space between the two pleural membranes
  212. laryngeal
    pertaining to the larynx
  213. laryngospasm
    spasmodic contraction of the larynx
  214. mucoid
    resembling mucus
  215. mucous
    pertaining to mucus
  216. nasopharyngeal
    pertaining to the nose and pharynx
  217. orthopnea
    able to breathe easier in a straight (upright) position
  218. phrenalgia

    also called diaphragmalgia
    pain in the diaphragm
  219. phrenospasm
    spasm of the diaphragm
  220. pulmonary
    pertaining to the lungs
  221. pulmonologist
    a physician who studies and treats diseases of the lung
  222. pulmonology
    • study of the lung
    • a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the lung
  223. rhinorrhea
    discharge from the nose (as in a cold)
  224. tachypnea
    rapid breathing
  225. thoracic
    pertaining to the chest (thorax)
  226. airway
    • passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs,
    • as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed
  227. asphyxia
    • deprivation of oxygen for tissue use
    • suffocation
  228. aspirate
    • to withdraw fluid or suction fluid
    • also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract
  229. bronchoconstrictor
    agent causing narrowing of the bronchi
  230. bronchodialator
    agent causing bronchi to widen
  231. cough
    sudden, noisy expulsion of air fro the lungs
  232. hiccup
    hiccough
    singultus
    sudden catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm
  233. hyperventilation
    ventilation of the lungs beyond normal body needs
  234. hypoventilation
    ventilation of the lungs that does not fulfill the body's gas exchange needs
  235. mucopurulent

    mu-ko-PUR-u-lent
    containing both mucus and pus
  236. mucus
    slimy fluid secreted by the mucous membranes
  237. nebulizer
    device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment
  238. nosocomial infection
    an infection acquired during hospitalization
  239. paroxysm
    periodic, sudden attack
  240. patent
    • open
    • the opposite of closed or compromised
    • thus allowing passage of air
    • as in patent trachea and bronchi
    • can be applied to any tubular passageway in the body, as in a patent artery, allowing passage of blood
  241. sputum
    mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth
  242. ventilator
    mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing

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