Pollen Morphology Terms

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kdog2009
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260228
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Pollen Morphology Terms
Updated:
2014-04-11 11:43:15
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pollen morphology terms palynology
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General pollen terms for palynological identification
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  1. INAPERTURATE
    without distinct apertures, ridges, or folds ("inapert" = not apart)
  2. APERTURE
    openings of thinner parts of exine, usually in regular patterns; a region of pollen wall which often differs significantly from the rest of the wall ("apert" = apart)
  3. ARCUS/ARCI
    curved wall thickening interconnecting apertures (arc = curved, "us" = more than 1 --> thick)
  4. ANNULUS
    thicker or thinner part of the exine, surrounding a pore; ring-like thickening (an anus [annulus] is round :x)
  5. COLPUS
    an elongated aperture where length is greater than the width situated at equatorial region or equally distributed ("coal mines are long openings")
  6. COLUMELLAE
    rod-like structural elements between endexine and tectum, appear like spots between 2 layers of wall ("like columns")
  7. ECHINATE/ECHINA
    pointed, conical, acute structural elements longer/wider than 1 μm; microechinate = smaller than 1 μm ("Echidna are spiny mammals")
  8. EKTEXINE
    outer part of the exine which houses the columellae, tectum, and supratectal elements ("ek get me to the exterior exine!")
  9. ENDEXINE
    distinct exine layer between intone and ektexine; the inner part of the exine ("endo" = internal)
  10. EXINE
    outermost layer of the pollen grain ("ex" = exterior), consisting of both the endexine and the ektexine (ektexine includes columellae and tectum)
  11. FENESTRE
    with window like openings (= lacunae) in the pollen grain ("things can fester in open, fenestre-like wounds")
  12. GEMMAE
    globular sculpturing elements more than 1 μm in diameter ("gimme some globe-like gemmae!")
  13. INTINE
    inner-most layer of a pollen grain wall ("in" = interior)
  14. PORE
    ~circular aperture with length/width ratio less than 2, ends rounded, situated at equatorial or regularly spaced over surface ("like pores of the skin")
  15. RUGULATE
    elongated exine elements irregularly distributed (rugulate "like a rumply rug")
  16. PSILATE
    pollen wall with smooth surface ("psil" = smooth like silk)
  17. SCABRATE
    minute, ornamenting, sculptural elements < 1 μm, of any shape ("scabs are small and in all shapes")
  18. -PORATE POLLEN CLASS
    • mono = 1 pore
    • di = 2 pores
    • tri = 3 pores
    • stephano = 4+ pores equatorially arranged
    • peri/panto = 4+ pores globally distributed
  19. SEMITECTUM
    discontinuous tectum, covering <50% of surface
  20. TECTUM
    outermost covering layer of the grain below sculptural elements that creates a roof over columellae (literally means "roof" in Latin; "sticky tacky shingles on a tectum roof")
  21. POLLENKITT
    sticky material produced by the tapetum that hold pollen grains together during dispersal ("kitty kisses are sticky")
  22. INTECTATE/ATECTATE
    grain without tectum
  23. VERMICULATE
    rugulate with contorted ridges, general term describing winding features (vermin --> "vermin are crooked")
  24. VERRUCAE
    a wart-like sculptural element > 1 μm broad, broader than high ("Veruca salt has warty bumps from being a shitty brat")
  25. CAVATE
    hollow area between tectum and endexine not traversed by columellae (cava = "cave like")
  26. POLYPLICATE
    more than three meridional ridges ("plicae") separated by deep grooves (poly = many; plicae = "ridges are thicker ply than flat spots)
  27. VESICULATE
    apertures absent or indistinct, with two bladders (vesiculate sounds like vasectomy = "two bladders left but nothing else")
  28. VESTIBULUM
    separation between layers of the exine forming a cavity between the inner and outer pores ("a vestibule chamber")
  29. -AD DISPERSAL UNIT
    • mono = single pollen grain
    • dy = two pollen grains
    • pseudo = tetrad w/3 rudimentary grains
    • tetrad = grains in groups of four
    • poly = 4+ grains clustered
  30. MASSULAR
    dispersal unit of more than 4 pollen grains & fewer than the locular (cavities) content ("grains dispersed en masse")
  31. POLLINIUM/POLLINARIUM
    dispersal unit of ~interconnected loculiform pollen mass; a pollinium with a single interconnecting sterile appendage = pollinarium ("interconnected pollen mass")
  32. PROLATE
    longer polar axis than equatorial diameter; long & skinny ("prolonged in shape and size")
  33. LOBATE
    lobed shaped aperturate grain in polar view ("grain with lobes like cat food")
  34. OBLATE
    shorter polar axis than equatorial diameter; short & fat (oblate --> "blobs are fat")
  35. ISOPOLAR
    identical proximal and distal faces; pores not concentrated in one hemisphere ("iso" means "equal"; an isosceles triangle has two equal angles)
  36. HETEROPOLAR
    pores mostly concentrated in one hemisphere ("hetero" means different)
  37. SACCUS
    exinous expansion forming an air sac, as in a pine pollen grain ("saccus like a sac")
  38. -APERTURATE POLLEN CLASS
    • angul = angled w/apertures at the angles
    • plana = angled w/apertures at middle of the sides ("planes")
    • stephano = 4-6 apertures at the equator
    • panto = apertures globally distributed
    • syn = grain with connecting apertures
    • spira = 1+ spiral apertures present
    • hetero = 2 diff apertures present
  39. BREVICOLPUS
    short colpus ("brevi" like "brief")
  40. PSEUDOCOLPUS
    colpus in heteroaperturate pollen grains; a colpus-like pseudoaperture.
  41. -COLPATE POLLEN CLASS
    • mono = single colpi
    • di = 2 colpi
    • tri = 3 colpi present
    • stephano = 4+ meridional colpi
    • peri = 4+ colpi, globally arranged
  42. DISTAL
    features on the surface that face outward in the tetrad stage ("distant from the center of the body")
  43. PROXIMAL
    features on the surface that face towards the center of the tetrad during development ("situated near the center of the body")
  44. POROID
    circular/elliptic aperture with indistinct margin ("poroid like a pore")
  45. TENUITAS
    thinning of pollen wall ("thinning is tenuous like tenuitas")
  46. -COLPORATE POLLEN CLASS
    • compound aperture of colpus (ektoaperture) and endoaperture of variable size/shape
    • di = 3 colpori
    • tri = 3 colpori
    • stephano = 4+ colpori equatorially situated
    • peri = 4+ globally distributed colpori
  47. SPORE CLASSES
    • alete = no aperture ("a" = without)
    • monolete = single slit-shaped aperture (aka laesura)
    • trilete = triradiate laesurae
  48. ULCUS/ULCERATE
    ~circular aperture with the same shape as a pore ("ulcus is round like an ulcer, which is an open sore")
  49. SULCUS/SULCATE
    • has the same shape as a colpus, but differs in orientation; essentially latitudinal apertures whereas colpi are longitudinal apertures
    • disulcate = two sulci
    • trichotomosulcus = 3-radiate sulcus
  50. MARGO
    thickened exine area surrounding an aperture and differentiated in ornamentation (margo sounds like yelling "marco" to determine who is surrounding you)
  51. COSTAE
    thickening in endexine ("it's costly to be thick")
  52. OPERCULUM
    coherent exine structure covering an aperture (a lid-like structure = "the perks of being covered are protection")
  53. BRIDGE
    exine connection between the margins of a colpus in the equatorial region ("connecting the colpi margins like a bridge")
  54. PAPILLA
    small protuberance, commonly found in Cupressaceae ("like the nose of a butterfly")
  55. RETICULUM
    network-like pattern formed by exine elements where lumina are wider than 1 μm (honeycomb structure --> "ret" like a net)
  56. POLAR VIEW
    top view ("of the poles")
  57. EQUATORIAL VIEW
    side view ("of the equator")
  58. HAPLOXYLON (white pine) TYPE
    pollen type with broadly attached near-spherical air sacs with low & smooth, irregular warty-like thickenings on tenuitas that look like black spots ("hap has em!")
  59. DIPLOXYLON (jack/red pine) TYPE
    narrowly attached, spherical air sacs with no thickenings/warts
  60. PLICA(TE)
    circumferential, parallel ridge-like folds ("ply are thick like ridges")
  61. STRIA(TE)
    elongated exine elements separated grooves predominantly parallel arranged ("striate like stripes and striations")
  62. GRANULUM
    grainy-like elements of various size and shape, smaller than 1 μm, often globally distributed (granulum = "grainy")
  63. PERFORATE
    pollen wall with holes less than 1 μm ("holes like perforations")
  64. FOVEOLA(TE)
    roundish lumen, pitted exine more than 1 μm diameter, distance btw 2 adjacent lumina larger than their diameter ("foveal" = small pits)
  65. LUMEN (PL: LUMINA)
    space enclosed by exine elements (e.g., muri that form the meshes in a reticulum) (lumen like light - the glass part of a window lets in light")
  66. FOSSULA(TE)
    irregularly shaped grooves in exine wall surface ("fossils are irregular in shape")
  67. LOPHAE
    network-like pattern of ridges formed by outer exine surrounding lacunae openings ("loph" like bread loaf which sometimes has patterned ridges)
  68. BACULUM
    rod-like, free standing element, blunt, more than 1 μm in height (apparently bacula is another word for penis…"dracula's bacula?!")
  69. CLAVA(TE)
    club-shaped element, higher than 1 μm ("clava means club")
  70. AREOLA(TE)
    small, mostly convex exine island ("an areola is the pigmented section around a nipple, like an island")
  71. CLYPEATE
    exine subdivided into shields ("I'll clip you with my shield if you don't back up")
  72. FOOT LAYER
    layer between columellae and endexine, the inner layer of ektexine ("foot or bottom layer of ektexine")
  73. LAESURAE
    spore aperture functioning as a dehiscence fissure ("leisure opening like laesurae")
  74. PERINE
    loose fitting sac enclosing certain spore taxa only - not in pollen grains ("peri" like a sac surrounding the spore")
  75. MURI (pl: MURUS)
    wall of the network (walls) that together with the lumina forms a reticulum

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