4.9 Acid/ Base Physiology

Card Set Information

Author:
xangxelax
ID:
260236
Filename:
4.9 Acid/ Base Physiology
Updated:
2014-02-05 15:35:39
Tags:
CP2
Folders:
CP2
Description:
CP2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user xangxelax on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What are strong acids? And examples?
    • H+ donors (release H+) that dissociate completely in solution
    • Ex. HCl
  2. What are weak acids? And examples?
    • H+ donors (release H+) that do not dissociate completely (dissociation is reversible)
    • Ex. H20
  3. What are strong bases? And examples?
    • H+ acceptors (accept H+) that dissociate completely in solution
    • Ex. NaOh
  4. What are weak bases? And examples?
    • H+ acceptors (accept H+) that do not dissociate completely (dissociation is reversible)
    • Ex. Bicarbonate, HCO3-
  5. What are volatile acids? And examples?
    • Generated from CO2
    • Excreted by the lungs
  6. What are fixed acids? And examples?
    • Normal catabolic processes:
    • sulfuric acid (from metabolism of sulfur-containing AAs)
    • Phosphoric acid (from metabolism of phospholipids)
    • Pathophysiologic: Ketoacids, lactic acid, salicylic acid, oxalic acid, formic acid --> leads to metabolic acidosis
  7. How does the buffer system function to regulate pH?
    • Prevent changes in pH
    • Accomplish this by binding H+ whenever the pH of the ECF drops below normal and releasing H+ whenever the pH of the ECF climbs above normal
    • 3 major chemical buffers system in the body:
    • Carbonic acid-Bicarbonate
    • Phosphate
    • Protein
  8. How does Carbonic Acid - Bicarbonate buffer the body?
    • CO2 + H20 ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3-
    • If excess H+ is present, then the rxn is favored to the ← (H+ are going to be soaked up)
    • If there is a shortage of H+ (alkalosis), then the rxn is favored to the → (H+ are going to be released)
  9. How does Phosphate buffer the body?
    • H2PO4- ↔ HPO4-2 + H+
    • If excess H+ is present, then the rxn is favored to the ← (H+ are going to be soaked up)
    • If there is a shortage of H+ (alkalosis), then the rxn is favored to the → (H+ are going to be released)
    • How does the respiratory system function to regulate pH?
  10. How does Protein (hemoglobin, albumins) buffer the body?
    • R-NH2 + H+ → R-NH3+
    • If excess H+ is present, then the rxn is favored to the ← (H+ are going to be soaked up)
    • If there is a shortage of H+ (alkalosis), then the rxn is favored to the → (H+ are going to be released)
  11. How does the renal system function to regulate pH?
    • Secreting H+
    • Reabsorbing HCO3-
    • Synthesizing HCO3-
    • When these 3 things are increased, the pH of the ECF will increase and the pH of the urine will decrease
    • When these 3 things are decreased, the pH of the ECF will decrease and the pH of the urine will increase
  12. W/ a sudden increase in pH, what is the magnitude and time course of the compensations that act to minimize change in pH of the body fluids, including buffers, respiratory adjustments, and renal adjustments?
    • Decreased pH (<7.35)
    • Elevated PaCO2 (>45 mmHg)
    • Buffers act like bases (minutes to hours)
    • Kidneys increase their secretion of H+, reabsorption of HCO3- and synthesis of HCO3- (3-5 days)
  13. W/ a sudden decrease in pH, what is the magnitude and time course of the compensations that act to minimize change in pH of the body fluids, including buffers, respiratory adjustments, and renal adjustments?
    • Increased pH
    • Decreased PaCO2
    • Buffers act like acids (minutes to hours)
    • Kidneys decrease their secretion of H+, reabsorption of HCO3- and synthesis of HCO3- (3-5 days)
  14. What is the pathophysiological processes that lead to respiratory acidosis?
    • Acute respiratory acidosis: Bicarbonate increases approx. 0.1 mEq/L for each 1 mmHg rise in PaCO2
    • Chronic respiratory acidosis: Bicarbonate increases approx. 0.4 mEq/L for each 1 mmHg rise in PaCO2
  15. What is the pathophysiological processes that lead to respiratory alkalosis?
    • Acute respiratory alkalosis: Bicarbonate (HCO3-) falls 0.2 mEq/L for each decrease of 1mmHg in the PaCO2
    • Chronic respiratory alkalosis: Bicarbonate (HCO3-) falls 0.4 mEq/L for each decrease of 1mmHg in the PaCO2
  16. What is the pathophysiological processes that lead to metabolic acidosis?
    PaCO2 decreases approx. 1.3 mmHg for each 1 mEq/L decrease in bicarbonate
  17. What is the pathophysiological processes that lead to metabolic alkalosis?
    PaCO2 increases approx. 0.7 mmHg for each 1mEq/L increase in bicarbonate
  18. What are some common causes of Respiratory Alkalosis?
    • Breathing at higher altitudes
    • Anxiety/ fear
    • Drug Overdose
    • Severe anemia
    • Serious infections
    • Tumors or swelling in the brain
    • Pregnancy
  19. What are some common causes of Respiratory Acidosis?
    • COPD - Emphysema, severe asthma, chronic bronchitis
    • Drug Overdose
    • Neuromuscular disease
    • Injury to brainstem
    • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (+ sleep apnea)
  20. What are some common causes of Metabolic Alkalosis?
    • Severe emesis
    • Gastric suctioning
    • Renal H+ loss (very complex mechanisms)
  21. What are some common causes of Metabolic Acidosis?
    • Ketoacidosis: diabetes, alcoholism, fasting/ starvation
    • Lactic acidosis
    • Ethylene glycol poisoning
    • Aspirin overdose (early poisoning)
    • Severe diarrhea
    • Proximal (type 2) renal tubular acidosis, in which proximal bicarbonate reabsorption is impaired
  22. What is the first line of defense in maintaining balance pH?
    Buffer system

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview