Blood

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Author:
glparker86
ID:
260237
Filename:
Blood
Updated:
2014-02-04 22:08:34
Tags:
histology
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Histology
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  1. What is blood suspended in ?
    Plasma
  2. What is blood primary function ?
    Transport gases , metabolic waste products , cells , and hormones.
  3. What are the three major classes of blood ?
    • Red Blood cells (Erythrocytes )
    • White Blood Cells (Leukocytes )
    • Platelets (thrombocytes )
  4. What are the components of blood ?
    Blood cells (Erythrocytes , Leukocytes , Thrombocytes)

    Fibers (Potential fibers of fibrinogen -blood clotting)

    Extracellular amorphous ground substance  (fluid and Proteins in blood plasma)
  5. What germ layer is blood derived from ?
    Mesoderm
  6. Does blood control body temperature and pH ?
    Yes
  7. What is Hematocrit ? What is the percentage of Hematocrit for Men and women ?
    • It is red blood cell concentration 
    • Men = 40% -50%
    • Women = 35%-45%
  8. What is the function of Erythrocytes ?
    Hemoglobin and transporting gases
  9. What is the function of neutrophils ?
    It has granules and modified lysosomes that perform phagocytosis of bacteria
  10. What is the function of Eosinophils ?
    It has specific granules , pharmacologically active substances and defense against helminths . Modulation of inflammatory process.
  11. What is the function of Basophils ?
    It produces heparin and histamine to function in anti-coagulant , in inflammation
  12. What is the function of Monocytes ?
    granules with lysosomes , phagocytosis and digestion of protozoa and virus and senescent cells.
  13. What is the function of B-Lymphocytes /Plasma cell ?
    Immunoglobulins , generation of antibody
  14. What is the function of T-Lymphocytes ?
    Release substance that kills cells , can control other leukocytes (interleukins).  Kills virus infected cells
  15. What is the function of killer T cells ?
    Substances the perforate cells , kills tumor cells and some virus infected cells
  16. What are the function of platelets ?
    makes blood clotting factor for blood clotting.
  17. What is blood serum ?
    It is the liquid portion of blood without clotting factors
  18. What is plasma composed of ?
    plasma proteins , inorganic salts , amino acids , vitamins , hormones , lipoproteins
  19. What are the main plasma proteins ?
    • Albumin 
    • Fibrinogen
  20. What is the Romanovsky stain ? what color would it be if azures binded ?
    It is a mixture of methylene blue and eosin. Stain nuclei of leukocytes purple and the rest of pink. It would be red-blue if azures binded.
  21. Are Erythrocytes acidophilic or basophilic ? What shape are Erythrocytes ?
    -Acidophilic because of the hemoglobin and oxygen.

    -They are Biconcave disc
  22. What is the normal blood cell concentration per microliter ? Men and women ?
    • Women =3.9 -5.5 million/microliter
    • Men = 4.1 - 6.0 million/microliter
  23. What are the size and percentage abundance of each cell type ?
    Never
    Let 
    Monkeys
    Eat 
    Banan
    • Neutrophil - 60-70%
    • Leukocytes - 20-30%
    • Monocytes- 3-8%
    • Eosinophils - 2-4%
    • Basophil - 0-1%
  24. What is anemia ?
    It is a low blood cell concentration
  25. What is Erythrocytosis / polycythemia ?
    It is where there is a high concentration of Red Blood cells
  26. What is Anisocytosis ?
    An increase red blood cell concentration with varying sizes
  27. What is Sickle cell Anemia ?
    There is a 1 point mutation in the nucleotide DNA
  28. What is oxyhemoglobin and carbaminohemoglobin ?
    • Oxyhemoglobin = hemoglobin and oxygen 
    • Carbaminohemoglobin = carbon dioxide and                                        hemoglobin
  29. What is Reticulocytes ?
    It is Erythrocytes released from bone marrow into the blood stream having ribosomal RNA.
  30. What is the function of Leukocytes ?
    defense
  31. What are the granular leukocytes ? how many lobes do the nucleus have ?
    Neutrophils , Basophils , Eosinophils

    2 lobes
  32. What color do Azurophilic granules stain ?
    Azurophilic granules (stain purple –lysosomes)
  33. What Leukocytes are agranular ? Do they stain purple with Azurophilic granules ? What shape is the nucleus ?
    Lymphocytes and Monocytes 

    Yes , they do. 

    It is rounded or indented
  34. What is diapedesis ?
    is the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system, towards the site of tissue damage or infection
  35. How many lobes do neutrophils ? What are neutrophils called with 5 or more lobes ?
    They usually have 2-5 (usually 3)

    hypersegemnted
  36. Can neutrophils survive in an anaerobic environments ?
    Yes
  37. How many lobes does an Eosinophils have ?
    bilobed
  38. What is Eosinophilia ?
    High concentration of Eosinophils in blood
  39. What does the basophils leukotrienes do ? What do the lobes look like ?
    slow contraction of muscles

    they are irregular
  40. Where do platelets / thrombocytes come from ? are they nucleated ? how many days do they live ?
    megakaryocytes

    no they are not

    10 days
  41. Describe the platelet function ?
    • Primary aggregation
    • Secondary aggregation
    • Blood Coagulation
    • Clot Retraction
    • Clot Removal
  42. Describe the process of Erythrocyte ?
    • Proerythrocyte (pronormoblast)
    • Erythroblast (normoblast)
    • Basophilic erythroblast - early
    • Polychromatic erythroblast - middle
    • Orthochromatic (normochromatic) - late 
    • Reticulocyte
  43. Describe the life process of Lymphocytes ?
    Lymphoblasts > prolymphocytes >lymphocytes
  44. Describe the life process of a Monocyte ?
    Monoblast > Promonocyte > Monocyte
  45. What type of white blood cell is Thymic referring to ? How long do they live ?
    T-lymphocytes

    years
  46. What type of white blood cell is Bursal referring to ? How long do they live ?
    B-Lymphocytes 

    weeks
  47. Discuss the sequence of the maturation of Granulocytes ?
    • Myeloblast
    • Promyelocyte
    • Myelocyte
    • Metamyelocyte
    • Band cell
    • Segmented cell

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