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What is blood suspended in ?
What is blood primary function ?
Transport gases , metabolic waste products , cells , and hormones.
What are the three major classes of blood ?
- Red Blood cells (Erythrocytes )
- White Blood Cells (Leukocytes )
- Platelets (thrombocytes )
What are the components of blood ?
Blood cells (Erythrocytes , Leukocytes , Thrombocytes)
Fibers (Potential fibers of fibrinogen -blood clotting)
Extracellular amorphous ground substance (fluid and Proteins in blood plasma)
What germ layer is blood derived from ?
Does blood control body temperature and pH ?
What is Hematocrit ? What is the percentage of Hematocrit for Men and women ?
- It is red blood cell concentration
- Men = 40% -50%
- Women = 35%-45%
What is the function of Erythrocytes ?
Hemoglobin and transporting gases
What is the function of neutrophils ?
It has granules and modified lysosomes that perform phagocytosis of bacteria
What is the function of Eosinophils ?
It has specific granules , pharmacologically active substances and defense against helminths . Modulation of inflammatory process.
What is the function of Basophils ?
It produces heparin and histamine to function in anti-coagulant , in inflammation
What is the function of Monocytes ?
granules with lysosomes , phagocytosis and digestion of protozoa and virus and senescent cells.
What is the function of B-Lymphocytes /Plasma cell ?
Immunoglobulins , generation of antibody
What is the function of T-Lymphocytes ?
Release substance that kills cells , can control other leukocytes (interleukins). Kills virus infected cells
What is the function of killer T cells ?
Substances the perforate cells , kills tumor cells and some virus infected cells
What are the function of platelets ?
makes blood clotting factor for blood clotting.
What is blood serum ?
It is the liquid portion of blood without clotting factors
What is plasma composed of ?
plasma proteins , inorganic salts , amino acids , vitamins , hormones , lipoproteins
What are the main plasma proteins ?
What is the Romanovsky stain ? what color would it be if azures binded ?
It is a mixture of methylene blue and eosin. Stain nuclei of leukocytes purple and the rest of pink. It would be red-blue if azures binded.
Are Erythrocytes acidophilic or basophilic ? What shape are Erythrocytes ?
-Acidophilic because of the hemoglobin and oxygen.
-They are Biconcave disc
What is the normal blood cell concentration per microliter ? Men and women ?
- Women =3.9 -5.5 million/microliter
- Men = 4.1 - 6.0 million/microliter
What are the size and percentage abundance of each cell type ?
- Neutrophil - 60-70%
- Leukocytes - 20-30%
- Monocytes- 3-8%
- Eosinophils - 2-4%
- Basophil - 0-1%
What is anemia ?
It is a low blood cell concentration
What is Erythrocytosis / polycythemia ?
It is where there is a high concentration of Red Blood cells
What is Anisocytosis ?
An increase red blood cell concentration with varying sizes
What is Sickle cell Anemia ?
There is a 1 point mutation in the nucleotide DNA
What is oxyhemoglobin and carbaminohemoglobin ?
- Oxyhemoglobin = hemoglobin and oxygen
- Carbaminohemoglobin = carbon dioxide and hemoglobin
What is Reticulocytes ?
It is Erythrocytes released from bone marrow into the blood stream having ribosomal RNA.
What is the function of Leukocytes ?
What are the granular leukocytes ? how many lobes do the nucleus have ?
Neutrophils , Basophils , Eosinophils
What color do Azurophilic granules stain ?
Azurophilic granules (stain purple –lysosomes)
What Leukocytes are agranular ? Do they stain purple with Azurophilic granules ? What shape is the nucleus ?
Lymphocytes and Monocytes
Yes , they do.
It is rounded or indented
What is diapedesis ?
is the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system, towards the site of tissue damage or infection
How many lobes do neutrophils ? What are neutrophils called with 5 or more lobes ?
They usually have 2-5 (usually 3)
Can neutrophils survive in an anaerobic environments ?
How many lobes does an Eosinophils have ?
What is Eosinophilia ?
High concentration of Eosinophils in blood
What does the basophils leukotrienes do ? What do the lobes look like ?
slow contraction of muscles
they are irregular
Where do platelets / thrombocytes come from ? are they nucleated ? how many days do they live ?
no they are not
Describe the platelet function ?
- Primary aggregation
- Secondary aggregation
- Blood Coagulation
- Clot Retraction
- Clot Removal
Describe the process of Erythrocyte ?
- Proerythrocyte (pronormoblast)
- Erythroblast (normoblast)
- Basophilic erythroblast - early
- Polychromatic erythroblast - middle
- Orthochromatic (normochromatic) - late
Describe the life process of Lymphocytes ?
Lymphoblasts > prolymphocytes >lymphocytes
Describe the life process of a Monocyte ?
Monoblast > Promonocyte > Monocyte
What type of white blood cell is Thymic referring to ? How long do they live ?
What type of white blood cell is Bursal referring to ? How long do they live ?
Discuss the sequence of the maturation of Granulocytes ?
- Band cell
- Segmented cell