Vertebrate Paleontology

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  1. Where do vertebrates come from? From whom? When? How do we know?
    • vertebrate origins from early cambrian
    • Myllokunmingia and Haikuichthyes (China)
    • -pharyngeal gill pouches
    • -v shaped myomeres
    • -notochord, heart, broad gut
    • -dorsal and ventrolateral fins
  2. How does body shape affect swimming ability?
    • water passes differently around different shapes
    • Disk with hard edges creates great resistance, resistance creates turbulence
    • Laminar flow=more efficient; less turbulent flow, easier swimmingImage Upload
  3. "Age of Fishes"
    Devonian 417-354mya
  4. earliest fish fossils
    • Ordovician and Silurian 443-417mya
    • heavily armored
  5. Bony fish groups
    (paraphyletic) Osteichthyans and Sarcopterygians
  6. Cartilagionous fishes
  7. Bone
    • Minearal and proein components
    • hexagonal apatite crystals plus collagen fibers
    • living tissue
    • can be remodeled throughout life
  8. osteocytes
    control bone formation
  9. Exoskeleton
    external; armor plates
  10. Endoskeleton
    provides internal body support
  11. Dentine
    few encapsulated cells, inner parts of teeth, narrow dentine tubules, cannot be remodeled
  12. Enamel
    crystalline apatite without collagen, cannot be remodeled
  13. Agnatha
    • no jaws; paraphyletic
    • Cambrian-Devonian +present
    • living lampreys and hagfishes
  14. Legendrelepis
    lings fossils to lampreysImage Upload
  15. conodontsImage Upload
    • earliest vertebrates with hard tissues--more derived than lampreys
    • Late Cambrain
    • Dermal armor isolated bits, apatite scales
    • bone evolved after the origin of vertebrates
    • same composition as bone and scales
  16. Pikaea
    • Image Uploadearliest fossils--Cambrian Burgess Shale
    • middle Cambrian 540mya
  17. Jamoytius
    • Image Uploadmost closely related to lampreys
    • Anaspid from Silurian of ScotlandLacked bony armorProbably lived lifestyle similar to that of lampreys
  18. cladogram early fishes
    Image Upload
  19. Astrapisids
    Image UploadOrdovician jawless fishes
  20. Arandapsid
    • Image Upload
    • Australian early fish
    • 20cm long
  21. sacabambillaImage Upload
    • ostracoderm from Bolivia
    • head covered with bony plates making a solid unit
    • body covered by long chevrons, allowing flexibility
    • under 30cm long
    • named after local town Sacabambilla
    • late Ordovician age 450mya
  22. Image UploadHeterostracans
    • (Pteraspidimorphi) Silurian and early Devonian
    • head shields of many shapes
    • Single opening on each side for all gills
    • broad ornamented dorsal plate
    • one or more side plates
    • large ventral plate
    • Grouped with Astrapsida and Arandaspidia because of shared aspidin on dermal armor
  23. DrepanaspisImage Upload
    • Early Devonian (4000mya) heterostracan
    • Dorsoventrally flattened
    • lived on sea floor
    • no paired fins
  24. AthenaegisImage Upload
    Silurian heterostracan - NW Territories, Canada - 5cm long
  25. LiliaspisImage Upload
    • early devonian heterostracan of Russia
    • Dubular mouths to suck up small prey from sea floor
  26. AnglaspisImage Upload
    Cyathaspid, early Devonian of England
  27. major events in fish evolution
    Image Upload
  28. ThelodontsImage Upload
    • Marine, worldwide distribution
    • Lived late Ordovician - late Devonian
    • Flexible bodies, swam sharklike with small scales
    • Paired pectoral, dorsal and anal fins
    • Oldest from US and Siberia
  29. OsteostracansImage Upload
    • Massive head shields 9as do Galeaspids and Pituriaspida) heavy armor
    • 300 species known
    • Ordovician to late Silurian/early Devonian
    • Paired fins covered with small scales
    • many different head shield shapesImage Upload
  30. HemicyclaspisImage Upload
    • Osteostracan (typical)
    • Lived in fresh water
    • 400mya
    • 20cm long
    • Paired pectoral fins
    • Dorsal fin
  31. ZenaspisImage Upload
    early devonian of Wales
Card Set:
Vertebrate Paleontology
2014-02-17 18:53:07
Test 1
Early fish
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