Chapter 1 Hormones

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BenWood
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260270
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Chapter 1 Hormones
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2014-02-05 00:01:16
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Hormones
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Chapter 1 (Hormones)
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  1. Steroid Hormones (Lipid)
    • - Progestins
    • - Androgens
    • - Estrogens
  2. Steroid hormones whose primary source is the ovary, placenta
    • - Progestins
    • - Estrogens
  3. Steroid hormone whose primary source is the testis
    Androgens
  4. Prostaglandins (Lipid)
    • - PGD2
    • - PGE2
    • - PGF2
  5. Prostaglandin whose primary source is the uterus
    PGD2
  6. Prostaglandin whose primary source is ovary, uterus
    PGE2
  7. Prostaglandin whose primary source is corpus luteum, uterus
    PGF2
  8. Protein Hormones (Polypeptides)
    • - Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • - Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • - Antiparamesonephric hormone (APH)
    • - Prolactin (PRL)
    • - Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
    • - Human placental lactogen (hPL)
    • - Leptin
  9. Protein polypeptide hormones whose primary source is the anterior pituitary
    • - FSH
    • - LH
    • - Prolactin
  10. Protein polypeptide hormone whose primary source is the Fetal testis
    APH
  11. Protein polypeptide hormones whose primary source is the placenta
    • - hCG
    • - hPL
  12. Protein polypeptide hormone whose primary source is the adipose tissue
    Leptin
  13. Protein Hormones (Peptides)
    • - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    • - Corticotrophic-releasing hormone (CRH)
    • - Oxytocin
    • - B-endorphin
    • - Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
  14. Protein peptide hormones whose primary source is hypothalamus, placenta
    • - GnRH
    • - CRH
    • - B-endorphin
  15. Protein peptide hormone whose primary source is the posterior pituitary
    Oxytocin
  16. Protein peptide hormone whose primary source is the anterior pituitary
    ACTH
  17. Amine Hormones (Neurotransmitters)
    • - Dopamine
    • - Melatonin
    • - Serotonin
  18. Amine hormone whose primary source is the hypothalamus
    Dopamine
  19. Amine hormone whose primary source is the pineal gland
    Melatonin
  20. Amine hormone whose primary source is the CNS
    Serotonin
  21. - Prepares uterus to receive conceptus
    - Maintains uterus during pregnancy
    - Stimulates growth of mammary glands
    - Regulates secretions of LH and FSH
    Progesterone
  22. Required for spermatogenesis

    Induce and maintain secondary sex characteristics of males (growth of external genitalia, body and pubic hair, deep voice), and pubic and axillary hair of females

    Regulate secretion of LH and FSH

    Promote increase in muscle mass and tone
    Androgens (Testosterone and DHT - Dihydrotestosterone)
  23. Necessary for oogenesis

    Stimulate growth and activity of mammary glands

    Stimulate growth of uterus

    Induce and maintain female body shape and fat distribution

    Regulate secretion of LH and FSH

    Required for skeletal maturation and bone mineralization in both males and females.
    Estrogens
  24. GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone)
    Composition: Peptide Hormone

    Gland it is secreted from: Hypothalamus (Brain)

    Action: Acts on gonads to produce gametes, control the maturation of those gametes and their release

    Cascade: None

    Other Info: Released in a pulsate fashion. Amine hormone Beta endorphin can turn GnRH off

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  25. Estrogen
    Composition: Lipid based steroid hormone

    • Gland it is secreted from: Ovary
    •  
    • Action: Stimulate breast growth, oogenesis and development of 2sex characters

    Cascade: GnRH releases FSH+LH from anterior pituitary, which acts on ovaries to release estrogen

    How it enters the cell: Easily enters the cell to act on receptors inside
  26. Androgen
    Composition: Lipid based steroid hormone

    Gland it is secreted from:  Testis

    Action: Makes testosterone and DHT. Is the precursor pathway to making estrogen.

    Cascade: GnRH releases FSH+LH from anterior pituitary, which acts on testes to release testosterone

    How it enters the cell: Easily enters the cell to act on receptors
  27. Progesterone
    Composition: Lipid based steroid hormone

    Gland it is secreted from: Ovaries (corpus luteum) and placenta

    Action: Maintains pregnancy: builds the thick endometrium lining for possibility of implantation

    Cascade: GnRH releases FSH+LH from anterior pituitary, which acts on ovaries

    How it enters the cell: Easily enters the cell to act on receptors inside
  28. Prostaglandins
    Composition: Lipid based hormone

    Gland it is secreted from: Ovary

    Action: Acts on uterus to make it contract

    How it enters the cell: Easily enters the cell to act on receptors
  29. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    Composition: Protein Hormone

    Gland it is secreted from: Anterior Pituitary

    Action: Stimulates production of eggs and sperm

    Cascade: GnRH to anterior pituitary to release LH to act on Sertoli cells (Male) and Granulosa cells (Female)

    Other Info: Can be inhibited by protein hormone Inhibin

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  30. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    Composition: Protein Hormone

    Gland it is secreted from:  Anterior Pituitary

    Action: Stimulates ovulation in females and Testosterone release in males

    Cascade: GnRh to anterior pituitary to release LH to act on Leydig cells (Male) to stimulate testosterone and Theca cells (Female)

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  31. Oxytocin
    Composition: Protein Hormone

    Gland it is secreted from: Posterior Pituitary 

    Action: Makes uterus contract and releases milk from the breasts

    Cascade: Hypothalamus tells Posterior Pituitary to secrete and act upon uterus or breasts

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  32. Prolactin
    Composition: Protein Hormone

    Gland it is secreted from: Anterior Pituitary 

    Action: Acts on mammary glands to initiate milk production in mammals after birth

    Cascade: PRH from hypothalamus causes Anterior Pituitary to release Prolactin

    Other Info: Ancestral hormone, its action is different for fish, birds, and amphibians

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  33. Relaxin
    Composition: Protein

    Gland it is secreted from: Ovaries and placenta 

    Action: Helps to dilate the cervix and increase flexibility of pubic symphysis

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  34. Inhibin
    Composition: Protein

    Gland it is secreted from: Ovaries and testes; also placenta 

    Action: Inhibits FSH, which acts on granulosa cells and Sertoli cells

    Cascade: Causing the Sertoli cells of the testis to stop sperm production

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  35. Antiparamesonephric Hormone (APH)
    Composition: Protein

    Gland it is secreted from: Fetal testis 

    Action: Degenerate the Mullerian or Paramesonephric duct

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  36. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
    Composition: Protein

    Gland it is secreted from: Placenta; and implanting embryo 

    Action: One of the earliest markers of pregnancy. Standard pregnancy test measures this

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  37. Human Placental Lactogen (hPL)
    Composition: Protein

    Gland it is secreted from: Placenta 

    Action: Stimulates fetal growth and breast development and milk production in a pregnant female

    How it enters the cell: Plasma membrane receptor (2nd messenger system)
  38. Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
    Composition: Protein

    • Gland it is secreted from: Hypothalamus
    •   
    • Cascade: Stimulates ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) releases from anterior pituitary and ACTH stimulates adrenal gland to produce cortisol

    Other Info: Cortisol prepares the fetal lungs at birth to breathe air

    How it enters the cell: Cortisol is a lipid (steroid hormone)
  39. Leptin
    Gland it is secreted from: Adipose (fat) tissue 

    • Action: Plays a role in initiating puberty
    • Other Info: Hormone that is from tissue and not an endocrine gland

    Other Info: Hormone that is from tissue and not an endocrine gland
  40. Dopamine
    Composition: Neurotransmitter

    Gland it is secreted from: Neurons of the central nervous system 

    Action: Inhibits the release of prolactin
  41. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
    Composition: Lipid

    Gland it is secreted from: Testes and adrenal cortex 

    Action: Spermatogeneis; induce & maintain 2sex characteristics

    How it enters the cell: Easily enters the cell to act on receptors inside
  42. Glands without ducts (i.e. ductless glands)
    Endocrine glands
  43. Glands with ducts
    Exocrine glands
  44. Endocrine Glands
    • - Pancreas
    • - Pineal gland
    • - Hypothalamus
    • - Pituitary gland
    • - Gonads (ovaries and testes)
    • - Thyroid
    • - Parathyroid
    • - Thymus
    • - Adrenal gland
  45. Exocrine Glands
    • - Pancreas
    • - Salivary glands
    • - Seminal vesicle, protate gland and       bulbourethral gland
    • - Bile producing glands of the liver
    • - Sweat (eccrine) glands
    • - Gastric glands
    • - Sebaceous (oil) glands
  46. Hormones
    Chemical signals that travel in body fluid (blood, hemolymph)

    Chemical signal can be released/secreted from a neuron or an endocrine cell

    Communicate physiological and regulation information to maintain homeostasis in multicellular organisms

    Communication can be cell-to-cell (local action) or communication can affect distant target cells (distal action)

    Hormones are effective in small amounts

    Target may be many cells in the body, may be an endocrine gland cell, may be a neuron
  47. Chemical signals produced by neurons; transmit signals from one neuron to another (examples are serotonin, melatonin and dopamine)
    Neurotransmitters
  48. Chemical signals produced by neurons are released into the blood stream and acts on the receptors of an endocrine gland
    Neurohormone/neurosecretretory cells
  49. Chemical signals produced by endocrine cells and can act on the receptors of an endocrine gland
    Endocrine cells
  50. Can be embedded in plasma membrane or located within a cell (intracellular)
    Hormone Receptors
  51. Stimulated by small or nonpolar ligands (steroid hormones, thyroid hormone)
    Cytoplasmic receptors
  52. Stimulated by large or polar ligands (acetylcholine, insulin, protein hormones)
    Plasma membrane receptors
  53. Cytoplasmic receptor proteins
    Chemical enters target cell and attaches to receptor

    Activated receptor triggers cell's response
  54. Plasma membrane receptor systems
    Chemical signal binds to receptor on the plasma membrane

    Triggers a signal-transduction pathway

    A secondary messenger system is activated
  55. Molecules that mimic the natural hormone
    examples: Phytoestrogens (plants) and Xenoestrogens (man made chemicals)
    Synthetic Hormones
  56. Chemicals that can mimic hormones and disrupt the normal actions of endogenous hormones
    Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC's)
  57. Hormones derived from plants and animals but are not identical to the hormones your body uses. Anabolic steroids are an example of these.
    Synthetic Hormones
  58. Hormones that are exactly the same as the hormones present in the human body.
    Bioidenticals
  59. Substance that activates a hormone receptor (mimics the effect of the natural hormone)
    Agonist
  60. Substance that blocks a hormone receptor (prevents natural hormone from exerting its effect)
    Antagonist
  61. Region of brain below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland
    Hypothalamus
  62. Small gland that hangs from the hypothalamus
    Pituitary Gland
  63. Connected to hypothalamus by neurons, functions to release ADH & Oxytocin into the bloodstream.
    Posterior Lobe (neurohypophysis)
  64. Regulates water retention by kidneys
    ADH/vasopressin
  65. Stimulates uterine contraction & milk let-down
    Oxytocin
  66. Connected to hypothalamus by a portal system (blood vessels) and stimulated by hypothalmic releasing hormones (CRH, PRH & GnRH) to produce ACTH, PRL, FSH & LH
    Anterior Lobe (adenohypophysis)
  67. Stimulates mammary gland growth & production of milk
    Prolactin (PRL)
  68. Stimulates adrenal gland (cortex) to secrete corticosteroid hormones
    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
  69. Stimulates production of eggs & sperm
    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  70. Stimulates ovulation in females & secretion of testosterone in males
    Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  71. Produce sex hormones (Testosterone & Estrogen)
    Gonads (Testes or Ovaries)
  72. Usually regulated by negative feedback mechanisms
    Hormone Concentration
  73. Regulated by hormone level
    Receptor Concentration
  74. Produced by ovary and placenta, prepares uterus for implantation, and maintains uterus during pregnancy (Example: Progesterone)
    Progestins
  75. Produced by testes & adrenal cortex, required for spermatogenesis, and induce & maintain 20 sex characteristics. (Examples: Testosterone & DHT)
    Androgens
  76. Produced by ovary, placenta and adrenal cortex, are required for oogenesis, and induce and maintain 20 sex characteristics.
    Estrogens
  77. All steroid hormones are synthesized from ______.
    Cholesterol
  78. Are produced by all cells of the body except RBC's, act locally (paracrine or autocrine), inactivate rapidly, and stimulate contractions of uterus during menstruation and birth. (Examples: PGD2, PGE2, PGF2)
    Prostaglandins
  79. Produced by anterior pituitary and targets testes & ovaries.
    Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  80. Produced by ovaries & testes and inhibits secretion of FSH
    Inhibin
  81. Produced by implanting embryo and maintains early pregnancy
    Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
  82. Produced by placenta, stimulates fetal growth, breast development & milk production
    Human Placental Lactogen (hPL)
  83. Produced by anterior pituitary and stimulates milk production
    Prolactin (PRL)
  84. Produced by testes of male fetus, and suppresses development of paramesonephric ducts in male fetus
    Antiparamesonephric Hormone (APH)
  85. Produced by adipose tissue; may play a role in initiating puberty
    Leptin
  86. Produced by hypothalamus and placenta, and regulates synthesis of LH & FSH
    Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
  87. Produced by hypothalamus and placenta, stimulates synthesis of ACTH and regulates timing of birth
    Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)
  88. Produced by hypothalamus, but released from posterior pituitary

    Stimulates uterine contractions during labor

    Stimulates milk let-down and ejection by mammary glands
    Oxytocin
  89. Produced by ovaries and placenta during pregnancy, increases flexibility of pubic symphysis, and helps dilate cervix during labor
    Relaxin
  90. Produced by neurons of CNS; may help regulate GnRH secretion
    Dopamine, Melatonin, and Serotonin
  91. Neurotransmitter that inhibits the release of prolactin
    Dopamine

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