7th grade Mid Term Science
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What is the latitude of the Tundra?
Between 60-70 degrees North
How much rainfall a year in the Tundra?
less than 25 centimeter a years
What is the temperature range in the Tundra?
Between -50 C to -18 C
What are the characterists of the Tundra?
- called the cold desert
- Permafrost- no water or roots can penetrate the surface
What are the plants in the Tundra?
What are the adaptations of the plants of the Tundra?
- shallow roots
- grow close together for warmth and protection
- small leaves so the lose less water
What are the animals of the Tundra?
- arctic wolf
- arctic fox
- musk ox
- brown beer
What are adaptations of the animals of the Tundra?
- Many migrate or hibernate
- fur for warmth and camouflage
What is the Tiaga?
What is the latitude of the Tiaga?
Between 50-60 degrees north
What is the amount of rainfall in the Tiaga?
30-60 cm of precipitation
What is the temperature of the Taiga?
Between -40 C to -20 C
What are the characteristics of the Taiga?
- Cold region
- evergreen trees
- dense forests
What are the plants in the Taiga?
What are the adaptations of plants in the Taiga?
- needles to retain water
- very green to absorb light
- bad tasting
- cone shape to reduce snow build up
What animals are in the Taiga?
- lots of birds that eat lots of insects
- large and small mammals - moose and ermine squirrels
What is the latitude of the temperate deciduous forest(TDF)?
Between 34 and 50 degrees north and south
What is the temperature in the TDF?
between -30 C to 30 C
What is the amount of rainfall in the TDF?
75 to 150 cm of precipitation
Characteristics of the TDF?
- trees lose leaves in the fall
- consistent monthly rainfall
- rich soil
What plants are in the TDF?
What are the adaptations of the plants in the TDF?
trees are dense, but still allow sunlight resulting in lots of plant growth layers
What are the animals of the TDF?
What are the adaptation of animals of the TDF?
- many migrate or hibernate
- store for winter (doesn't rot because of temperatures)
What is the latitude of the desert?
18-35 degrees north and south
What are the temperatures of the desert?
Between -18 C to 49 C
What are the characteristics of the desert?
- Very dry, poor soil
- huge ranges in temperature
What is the rainfall of the desert?
25 centimeters or less
What are the plants of the desert?
What are the adaptations of plants in the desert?
- Some plants have one long deep root
- Others have shallow branching roots
- Succulents store water
- leaves are waxy, small, and glossy
What are the animals of the desert?
- Small mammals (easier for them to find shelter)
What are the adaptations of the animals of the desert?
- Active at night
- stay in shade or burrows during the day
- large ears to help with heat loss
What is the latitude of the tropical rain forests?
Near the equator between 24 north and 24 south
What are the temperatures of the tropical rain forest?
About 25 C
What is the rainfall amount of the tropical rain forest?
Between 200 - 450 cm of rain
What are the characteristics of the tropical rain forest?
- hot and humid
- poor soil due to rapid decomposition
- largest number of species and most diversity
What are the plants of the tropical rain forests?
What are the adaptations of the plants of the rain forests?
- layers of vegetation
- shallow roots
- broad leaves
- many plants grow on trees
- trees make ground dark so lots of fungi
What are the animals of the tropical rain forests?
- big cats
What are the adaptations of the animals of the rain forests?
- many brightly colored
- adapted for life in trees- claws and tails
- various food sources
What is the latitude of the grasslands?
- between 30 and 40 degrees north and south
- in the middle of continents
What is the amount of rain in the grasslands?
between 50 - 90 centimeters
What is the temperature of the grasslands?
-40 C to -30 C
What are the plants of the grasslands?
What are the characters if the grasslands?
- no enough rain for trees
- rich soil due to slow decomposition
- dryer than temperate forest
What are the plants of the grasslands?
What are the adaptations of the plants of the grasslands?
- they have long reach water during drought
- thin blades to lose less water
- grass can be tall in wetter areas and short in dryer areas
- grass grows from bottom up so it can withstand forest fires
What are the animals of the grasslands?
- prairie dogs
What are the adaptation of the animals of the grasslands?
- mainly herbivores
- long legs allow escape from predators because of little shelter
- teeth made to grind grass
What is a marine biome?
- seeweeds (algae)
- forms basis of food chains
- needs to get sun to do photosynthesis
- some float
- some attach to sea floor with hold fasts
What makes up a marine biome?
- salt water
- covers 3/4 of our earth's surface
What animals make up marine biomes?
- animals are often streamlined for swimming and have fins
- use gills or lungs to get oxygen
What makes up a freshwater biome?
- polar ice caps
What are the characteristics of the freshwater biome?
- little or no salt water
- sometimes have high nutrients
What are the plants and animals of a freshwater biome?
Aquatic plants (algae)- have chlorophyl do photosynthesis
fish and mollusks - have various ways to get oxygen from water
What is a biome?
Very large region of land on our earth tha have similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.
What is climate?
Typical long term weather pattern in an area
What factors affect climate?
What angle does the earth revolve around the sun?
How does latitude affect climate?
the distance from the equator determines the intensity of radiation from the sun
tilt of earth on axis varies and causes different climates
How does temperature affect climate?
Depends on intensity of light from the sun
How does elevation affect climate?
- Even air is affected by gravity
- At sea level air molecules are held more closely to earth's surface and air is denser. Therefore it is warmer
- On mountains (higher elevations), air is less dense and colder
How does precipitation affect climate?
- Amount of rain, snow, sleet, hail, and fog that on area is affected by temperature
- Warm air rising from the Earth has lots of water vapor, currents in the atmosphere push air masses towards poles where it is cooled and falls
What is adaptation?
Any physical or behavioral characteristic that makes and animal or plant well suited to live in its environment.
What is hibernation?
- A behavioral adaption
- Animals become inactive for a long period of time. Their body processes slow down so they don't have to use energy.
What is dormancy?
- A behavioral adaptation
- Deciduous trees shed there leaves and the rest of the tree "sleeps" thought the winter, not using much energy.
- Seeds can stay in the ground for years before they germinate and sprout.
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