Thinking and language and Stuff

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  1. Cognition
    the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  2. Concept
    a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
  3. Hierarchies
    categories of concepts
  4. Prototypes
    • a mental image or best example of a category
    • matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories
  5. Algorithm
    • a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
    • contrasts with the usually speedier, but more error-prone use of heuristics
  6. Heuristic
    a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solves problems efficiently
  7. Insight
    a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
  8. Fixation
    the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
  9. Mental Set
    a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
  10. Functional Fixedness
    the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
  11. Representativeness Heuristic
    • judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
    • may lead us to ignore other relevant information
  12. Availability Heuristic
    • estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
    • if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
  13. Overconfidence
    that tendency to be more confident than correct -- to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
  14. Belief Perserverence
    clinging to one's initial conceptions after tha basis on which they were formed has been discredited
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Thinking and language and Stuff
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