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The study of the body's structure.
- The study of function...
- How the body works.
Structural Organization of the Human Body
(in order of complexity with definitions)
- Chemical Level: Smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions; Atoms (C, H, N, O, P) and molecules (DNA).
- Cellular Level: Molecules combine to form structures at the next level; Cells (muscle, nerve, blood).
- Tissue Level: Groups of cells/materials surrounding them to perform a particular function; Tissues (Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous).
- Organ Level: Different kinds of tissues join together to form body structures; Organs (Stomache, Heart, Liver, Lungs, Brain).
- System Level: Related organs that come together to perform a common function; Digestive system.
- Organism Level: Largest level; all systems combine together to make a human being.
Organ Systems of the Body and Functions
- Integumentary System: Helps regulate body temp, protects body, eliminates some wastes, makes vit. D, detects sensation.
- Skeletal System: Supports/protects the body, provides specific area for muscle attachment, assists with body movement, stores blood cells/minerals/lipids.
- Muscular System: Maintains posture, participates in body movement, produces heat.
- Nervous System: Regulates activities through nerve impulses by detection of the changes in the environment, responds to changes by bringing muscle contractions and glandular secretions.
- Endocrine System: Regulates body activities through hormones transported by the blood to target organs.
- Cardiovascular System: Heart pumps blood through vessels, blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and CO2 away from cells, helps regulate acidity/temp/water content of bodily fluids, blood comp. helps defend against disease and mends damaged cells.
- Lymphatic System and Immunity: Returns proteins/fluids to blood, carries fluids from gastro. track to blood, contains sites of maturation/proliferation of B/T cells.
- Respiratory System: Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and CO2 to exhaled air, helps regulate body fluids.
- Digestive System: Physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates solid wastes.
- Urinary System: Produces/stores/eliminates urine, helps regulate chemical composition of blood, maintains body's mineral balance.
- Reproductive System: Gonads produces gametes that unite to form a new organism and release hormones that help regulate reproduction.
Homeostasis and Feedback Mechanism
- Homeostasis: Ensures that the body's internal environment remains constant despite changes inside and outside the body.
- Feedback Mechanism: A stimulus disrupts homeostasis that is controlled by the receptor, in which case the receptor sends an input (nerve impulse/chemical signal) to the modulator which receives the input and sends out an output to the effectors that bring a response that alters the condition, which makes it go back to homeostasis.
Negative and Positive Feedback
- Negative feedback reverses/cancels an original stimulus.
- Positive feedback is a response that strengthens a stimulus.