A program stored on a flash memory chip attached to the motherboard that establishes the initial communication between the components of the computer, such as the hard drive, CD-ROM, floppy disk, video, and memory.
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
Software that includes the instructions necessary in order for an operating system to communicate with a hardware device.
A resource that allows hardware to access RAM directly without intervention of the system CPU.
Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels
A digital signature that Microsoft incorporates into driver and system files as a way to verify that the files and to ensure that they are not inappropriately overwritten.
A utility use to identify unsigned system and driver files, that provides information such as the filename, location, modification date, and version number.
File Signature Verification
A set of instructions telling the operating system which devices start and drivers to load when a computer starts.
A legacy 16-bit bus architecture that does not support the Plug and Play standard.
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA)
Dedicated memory areas that are allocated for the purpose of transferring information between a computer and a hardware device.
Input/Output (I/O) ranges
Resource used by hardware devices to gain the attention of the system processor.
Interrupt Request (IRQ) lines
Devices that do not follow the Plug and Play standard, such as older Industry Standard Architecture.
Memory ranges allocated for the purpose of communication between a hardware device and operating system.
Memory Address range
Disk space, in the form of a file (pagefile.sys), for use when memory requirements exceed the available RAM.
A set of specifications originally developed by Intel that enables a system to automatically detect hardware and configure driver and resource settings.
Plug and Play
A device built into electrical equipment or a separate device that provides immediate battery power to equipment during a power failure or brownout.
uninterrupted power supply (UPS)
Disk storage used to extend the capacity of the physical RAM installed in the computer.
The main listing of hardware devices that have been certified to the function with Windows Server 2003, and officially carry the "Designated for Windows Server 2003" logo.