Test Exam I.5 Diatoms

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DesLee26
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260316
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Test Exam I.5 Diatoms
Updated:
2014-02-08 08:04:55
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Plant Kingdom
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Biology
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Mickle
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  1. Diatom strucutre?

    Mobility?

    Why it has its color?
    may be unicellular (majority) or colonial, or loosely aggregated into irregulat filaments

    all adults non-motile; some sperm motile (1 flagellum)

    Predominance of carotenoids, especially fucoxanthin giving the cells a golden-brown color
  2. Cells are?
    diploid so they have a haplobiontic diploid type of life cycle

    on the basis of symmetry, cells have two basic shapes (or variations of these shapes): pennate (bilateral symmetry) and centric (radial symmetry; circular, triangular, square)
  3. Cell wall composed of __, like a __, made of __. Walls have extensive delicate mrkings, such as __(3)__ that are used to identify species. 2 valves= __
    • two overlapping halves (valves)
    • box
    • silica (glas)
    • pores
    • ridges
    • depressions
    • one frustule
  4. Reprduction
    • usually by cell division (mitosis)
    • each daughter cell receives one valve from the parent cell and has to make a second valve; parent valve always forms the top valve
  5. Abundance where?

    Resemble __

    Alot are __ or __.

    __: dots= holes in the cell wall.

    How may different shapes? 

    Used to test?
    in fresh/marine water and at the base of the food chains

    brown scum

    attached/free-floating

    • holsters
    • many different shapes

    microscopic lenses
  6. Advantage of having a cells that make cell wall out of silica?

    Things will get stuck to silica like what?
    • hard to break down
    • energy inexpensive-->not as much energy
    • required--> more energy for reproduction

    nutrients; giving cells advantage in absorbing nutrients
  7. Diatom adults?
    no flagella

    gametes have flagella (reproductive)

    a few look like pennate
  8. What kind of chlorophylls do diatoms have?
    chlorophylls a and c
  9. Pennate diatoms fit together like __. 

    The cell wall is made of __.
    a petri dish

    glass (silica)
  10. Mitosis is triggered by __. The parent cell does what?
    a need for reproduction

    separates and becomes the top part for each daughter cell
  11. Only __ have flagella. Population of cells that aren't __.

    Throughout reproduction, what happens regardign size?

    The most common way they reproduce is by __.
    haploid cells (gametes); motile

    the average size keeps getting smaller, eventually triggering a need for reproduction (sexual)

    mitosis
  12. The result of asex reproduction by cell division in the diatoms, by which what?
    one of the two daughter cells is ordinarily slightly smaller than the parent cell
  13. Diatoms are source of some __. Up to __ of a diatoms mass is __. If diatoms are eaten by ish, what happens? 

    Diatoms also contribute to __.
    • fish liver oils
    • forty percent
    • oil
    • their oils may be storedin the livers of the fish (ex: cod liver oil)

    oil reserves
  14. It is possible that vast deposits of diatoms in the past produced some of the __ we're using now.

    A few species cause __.
    - Occurrence: First reported outbreak was in __, __, __ from eating locally cultured blue mussels; 4 dead adn 153 reported symptoms.
    petroleum

    • amnesic shellfish poisoning 
    • 1987
    • Prince Edward Island, Canada
  15. What are shellfish? What happens when they eat the diatoms?
    filter feeders

    it gets stuck in the gills; possible wound forms infection
  16. Amnesic shelfish poisoning has occurred from Alaska to southern California and in New England. May and June, 1998: death fo > __ from eating anchoivies that had fed on __. 

    __ are responsible: Species of the genera __ and __.
    • 400 sea lions
    • Pseudo-nitzchia
    • Nitzschia
    • Pseudo-nitzschia
  17. Toxin: A heat-stable neurotoxin called __; there is __.
    domoic acid; antidote
  18. Source for humans that may cause amnesic shellfish poisoning
    seafood, like mussels, clams, crabs and anchovies that feed on diatoms; the toxin does not harm them
  19. Symptoms
    Within 24 hours: nausea, vomiting, diarrhe, abdominal cramps
    Neorological symptoms that appear over 48 hours: headache, dizziness, confusion, difficulty breathing, loss of short-term memory, seizures, disorientation, dementia, coma

    What can result?
    death
  20. __ has caused problems in the __ of salmon and cod on the west coast. The cells have long hollow spines that break off and penetrate fish gills, doing what? 
    Damage may lead to __.
    • chaetoceros
    • aquaculture
    • disrupting gas exchange and causing bleeding
    • secondary bacterial infections
  21. What does diatomaceous earth consists of?
    diatoms shels (glass cell walls) remaining after the protoplasm dies; deposits have built up over millions of years
  22. Deposits of marine origin (shallow seas): where?
    Lompac, CA--largest deposit in the world; bed > 650' feet  

    Santa Maria oil fields
  23. Deposits of freshwater origins
    Smaller in size than marine deposits; United Kingdom, Maryland, Nevada, Washington, Oregon
  24. Uses of diatomaceous earth relate to four of its characteristics:
    1) exceptionally high melting point (1750 degree Celsius)

    2) insolubility in most acids and other liquids (i.e. inert)

    3) high porosity (spaces between cells/ materials)

    4) shells very small and hard
  25. Main types of uses
    • filtration
    • mineral filler
    • paint
    • mild abrasive
    • insulation
    • insecticide
  26. Filtration (small inert parciles, high porosity).

    This is the __. 

    Types of filters
    major use

    • swimming pools
    • sugar refining (thick syrup filterred)
    • vegetable oils: removal of pigments
    • water and bottled drinks
    • liquid soaps
    • gelatin
    • liquor, beer, etc
    • antibiotics
    • municipal water supplies
  27. Mineral filler: 

    what uses?
    • dynamite
    • spackle
    • lightweight concrete
    • insecticides
    • embalming fluid
  28. Paint

    Diatom shells create a __; gives paint a __
    • flattening effect
    • a flat or semigloss appearance
  29. Mild abrasive (small, hard inert particles_
    • metal polishes
    • toothpastes
    • some shoe polishes
    • some cleaners
  30. Insulation (high MP, high porosity to trap air)
    • blast furnaces 
    • boilers
  31. Insecticide
    • environmentally okay
    • doesnt' affect larger animals

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