Orthograde transport is movement of molecules/organelles outward, from the cell body (soma) to the synapse or cell membrane.
Orthograde movement of transport vesicles along the microtubules is mediated by kinesins
What is retrograde axonal transport?
Retrograde transport is movement of molecules/organelles inward, away from the synapse or plasma membrane towards the cell body or soma.
It is mediated by dynein, and is used to send chemical messages back from the axon back to the cell
Why is a large blood supply crucial for neurones?
Because all the events in neurotransmitter synthesis and release require energy, so neurones need to generate ATP constantly
In 1mm3 of cerebral cortex, it is estimated that there are...
4 kilometers of axon
500 metres of dendritess
What are neuroglial cells?
What types are there?
Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain and peripheral nervous system.
What do Oligodendrocytes do?
They form myelin sheaths for several axons
What do Astrocytes do?
They control K+, glutamate, and Ca2+ in the extracellular space.
Astrocytes adjacent to active neurons cause nearby blood vessels to dilate, increasing blood flow to the area and enabling the neurons to obtain oxygen and glucose more quickly.
They play important roles in the blood-brain barrier and in local blood flow.
What are microglia?
They are Microglia are specialized macrophages, capable of phagocytosis, that protect neurons of the central nervous system.