Haematology

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
260341
Filename:
Haematology
Updated:
2014-02-05 06:50:34
Tags:
haematology finals
Folders:
finals,medicine
Description:
haemao
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  1. Look over this nice picture of blood cells
  2. Define anaemia + the different types
    Anaemia = Hb <125g/dL

    Microcytic -> low MCV -> defective haemoglobinisation

    Macrocytic -> MCV >100 -> Defective DNA synthesis
  3. What are the causes of Microcytic anaemia?
    TAILS

    • Thalassaemia
    • Anaemia of Chronic disease
    • IDA
    • Lead Poisoning
    • Sideroblastic anaemia
  4. For IDA give;
    -3 CF
    -2 causes
    -Ix
    -Mx
    CF

    Spooned nails, angular stomatitis, atrophic glossitis [pale & painless], Oesophageal web [Plummer-Vinson syndrome]

    Causes;

    • Blood loss -> GI until proven otherwise
    • Malabsorption -> Gastric acid req for release, abs in small intestine [Coeliac]
    • ^^Physiological demand -> pregnancy, infancy, puberty

    Ix -> low Serum ferritin, TF saturation <16%

    Mx -> Treat cause, Ferrous fumerate
  5. What are the investigation results of Anaemia of chronic disease?
    • Film -> normocytic, normochromic, RBC rouleuax
    • ^ESR
    • N/^Serum ferritin
    • Total iron binding capacity = low
  6. Breifly outline B-Thalassaemia
    AR inherited disorder of globin genes [missing one]

    CF -> dyserythropoeisis, hair on end skull XR, anaemia + spleenomegaly

    Mx -> Blood transfusion + chelation therapy
  7. Give 4 causes of Marocytic anaemia?
    Defective DNA synthesis;

    • B12 deficit
    • Folate deficit
    • Cytotoxic drugs
    • Myelodysplasia

    Other;

    • Marked reticulocytosis
    • Elevated plasma lipid -> alcohol, pregnancy, hypothyroidism
  8. Ix of Macrocytic anaemia?
    • Hb = low
    • MCV >120
    • Blood film
    • SF = elevated
    • Plasma LDH = elevated
  9. Outline B12 deficiency and give 3 causes?
    B12 [Cobalamin]

    bound to intrinsic factor -> abs in terminal ileum

    causes:

    • Diet deficit -> strict vegans, rare
    • Gastric factors -> impaired acid secretion
    • Pernicious anaemia -> autoimmune destruction of parietal cells [no intrinsic factor]
    • small bowel -> ceoliac, IBD, tapeworms
  10. Outline folate deficiency and causes?
    Required for DNA synthesis

    Causes:

    • diet -> poor green leafy vegetables
    • Malabsorption -> Coeliac diasease
    • ^^demand state -> pregnancy, cell proliferation
    • Drugs -> phenytoin, OCP, MTX [only worsen existing deficit]
  11. Outline the congenital anc acquired causes of haemolytic anaemia. Give 2 for each.

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