Vertebrate Paleontology

The flashcards below were created by user Angdredd on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. PituraspidsImage Upload 1
    • early Devonian of Australia
    • Heavy bony head shields
    • Unusual, large openings below the eye
  2. GnathostomataImage Upload 2
    • 1 degree upper palatoquadrate cartilage
    • 1 degree lower jaw =Meckel's cartilage
    • Supporting hyoid arch - all but placoderms
    • Separate endoskeletal pectoral and pelvic girdles and fin skeletons
  3. Fins!Image Upload 3
    • Fins permit efficient swimming propulsion and control of position in water column
    • Paired fins allow horizontal stability
    • tail provides propulsion
    • Dorsal and anal fin skeletons supported by basals and radials
    • Horizontal semicircular canal
  4. beginning with Chondryicthyes
    • teeth erupt from dental lamina
    • nasal capsule fused to chondrocranium
    • postorbital connection between palatoquadrate and braincase
    • internal(=medial) rectus muscle inserts posteriorly in orbit
    • Superior and inferior obliques anterior in orbit
  5. characters of Ancanthodii and Osteichthyes
    • ventral cranial fissure
    • Glossophayrngeal (IX) nerve dorsal and posterior to otic capsule
    • palatobasal process
    • Interhyal
    • lateral line passing through scales
    • paired fin radials barely exit body walls
  6. jaws, the significance
    • increased adaptive pathways
    • increased diet and food handling possibilities, grasp prey firmly, cut slice or grind prey for swallowing, permit suction feeding
    • Allows animals to become predators
    • arose from major repatterning process, from improvements for water pumping, not feeding, from neural rest cells
    • jawless ancestors show a variety of stages toward evolution of jaws
    • jaws take many forms
    • jaws offer fishes and later forms a wider variety of means of feeding
  7. Gnathostomata
    jawed mouths
  8. Placodermi
    heavily armored, Silurian/Devonian - joint necked fishes
  9. Chondrichthyes
    cartilaginous fishes, modern sharks and ray ancestors
  10. Acanthodii
    late Ordovician, earliest gnathostomes "spiny sharks"
  11. Osteichthyes
    bony fishes - Actinopterygians and Sarcopterygians
  12. PlacodermsImage Upload 4
    • bony carapaces
    • cover head and anterior trunk
    • mobile
    • neck joint allows head lift
    • variable body forms
  13. RolfosteusImage Upload 5
    long nose from Australia
  14. Placodermi
    • 6 clades - most basal- most advanced
    • arose 420 mya
  15. acanthothoraci
    • placoderm
    • headshields=separate elements (juveniles); fused later (adults)
    • heavily ornamented
    • common in Australia
  16. Rhennanida
    • pladoderm
    • small scales ray like body
    • bottom feeder, swam with wavelike undulations
    • flattened dorsoventrallyImage Upload 6
  17. Anthiarchi
    • diverse, mid and late Devonian
    • Heavily armored
    • placoderm
    • Specialized, bottom-dwelling lifestyle
    • Swallowed mud to extract organics
    • Pectoral fins encased in bone, moveable at a complex joint
    • second joint halfway along fin
    • probably not for swimming but to cover animal in sand to bury itself to hide from predators
  18. Pterichthyodes
    • early placoderm species
    • high, domed trunk shield of large plates
    • pectoral fin encased on bone, with a complex jointImage Upload 7
  19. BothriolepisImage Upload 8
    • placoderm
    • most successful antiarch
    • 100 species (middle to late Devonian)
    • worldwide distribution
    • may have had lungs and could breath air
    • slender-lightly scaled tail
    • paired pelvic fins
    • pectoral fins with jagged tooth-like edges
  20. petalicthydsImage Upload 9
    • placoderm
    • early devonian of europe
    • bottom dwelling forms
  21. LunaspisImage Upload 10
    • placoderm-petalicthyd
    • short trunk shield and cornual plates
    • tiny scales around eyes and on rear of body
  22. PtyctodontsImage Upload 11
    • placoderm
    • reduced armor plating
    • small animals-long whip like tails
    • long dorsal spine
    • may have claspers
  23. ArthrodiresImage Upload 12
    • placoderm
    • overlapping bone plates
    • trunk and head shields
    • articulate by sliding (early) or knob and grove (later)
    • possible lateral line groves
    • many patterns of ornimentation
    • ossified braincases perichodral laminar bone (early) later, cartilaginous
    • pointed tooth like plates on edges of jaws for gripping prey
  24. DunkleosteusImage Upload 13
    • placoderm
    • most famous arthrodire
  25. Chondricthyes
    • cartilaginous fishes
    • ancestors of present sharks and rays
    • isolated scales and teeth in Ordovician and Silurian
    • common in Devonian
    • up to 2m in length
  26. Body features of acanthodians
    • large fin spines
    • large eyes and mouth openings
    • scales showing groth rings
  27. ClimatiusImage Upload 14
    • arthrodire?
    • ovten called "spiny sharks"
  28. PsarolepisImage Upload 15
    a "missing link" - placed at base of both sarcopterygian and actinopterygian lineages
  29. Actinopterygians
    • "ray finned" fishes
    • fins supported by slender rods or rays (-endoskeletal lepidotrichia)
    • Muscles controlling fin movements are within the body wall
    • Grades of organization of bony fishes
    • unnatural groups (old useage)
    • -Chondrostean=primitive
    • -holostean=intermediate
    • -teleost=advanced
  30. mid Devonian bony fish anatomyImage Upload 16
    many variations on this theme
  31. Paleonisciformes
    actinopterygian (encompasses the old chondrosteans)
  32. Neopterygians
    • Actinopterygian (inclueds old Holosteans and teleosts)
    • have swim bladders to provide neutral buoyancy
    • ossified endoskeleton
    • dermal bone may also be present
    • overlapping body scales
    • two groups
    • -actinopterygians - largest group; ray-finned fishes
    • -Sarcopterygians - lobe finned fishes
  33. PaleonisciformesImage Upload 17
    • palaeoniscoids (Cheirolepis)
    • Polypteriformes (Polypterus, common name bichir)
    • Acipenseriformes (sturgeons)
    • Paddlefishes (Polyodon)
    • others, from early Devonian in age to the present
  34. Palaeoniscids
    • earliest bony fishes
    • up to half meter long; most smaller
    • notochords with ossified neural and hemal arches
    • ganoid scales
    • active predators in marine and fresh water
    • Greatest diversity in Permian;most died out in Triassic
    • Some survived to present, Acipenser, Polypterus and paddlefish
  35. Ganoid scales
    small overlapping rhomboid shaped scales containing bone at the base, middle dentin and surfaces covered with ganoine(=enamel)
  36. AcipenserImage Upload 18
    • sturgeon
    • caviar!
  37. PolypterusImage Upload 19
    • bichir-african distribution has shark-like spiral valve as intestine
    • wide fins
    • large bony plates
  38. Polypterus
    • rhomboid ganoid scales
    • spiracle
    • paired swim bladders similar to ventral lungs
    • must gulp air occasionally or they will drown
    • Fleshy pectoral fins had them classified with sarcopterygians, but this is probably an independent evolution of this trait (=autapomorphy or unique derived character)
    • live in swamps and streams in Africa
  39. PolyodonImage Upload 20
    paddlefish north american river fish Mississippi drainage
  40. Amiiformes
    amia bowfin
  41. Lepisosteiformes
    lepisosteus gars
  42. Neopterygians
    • replaced palaeoniscids in Triassic as dominant group to present
    • live in all habitats
    • jaw modifications allowed for greater mobility and different feeding habits
    • scales became more rounded and thinner
    • more active swimmers
    • notochords replaced by a series of vertebrae
    • symmetrical homocercal tails
  43. Amia calvaImage Upload 21
    • bowfin-fresh water North American fish
    • Primitive neopterygian, with rhombic scales, although more flexible than palaeonsicids
    • Scale type also present in gars
  44. Image Upload 22
  45. Image Upload 23
  46. Image Upload 24
  47. Image Upload 25
  48. Image Upload 26
  49. Image Upload 27
  50. Image Upload 28
    lepisosteus-gar
  51. Image Upload 29
    • Teleostei
    • Advanced neopterygians (terminal bony fishes)
    • nearly 20000 living species
    • wide geographic distribution-in all watery habitats
    • appeared 225mya (late Triassic)
    • Monophyletic
    • homocercal tails
    • circular scales lacking ganoine
    • ossified vertebrae
    • swim bladders
    • Skulls with complex jaw apparatuses for greater mobility, for rapid prey capture, and food manipulation
    • many body forms-slender to deep
  52. swim bladders
    control buoyancy
  53. Image Upload 30
    • Sarcopterygii
    • lobe-finned fishes
    • gave rise to amphibians; the first tetrapods
    • 2nd group of bony fishes
    • fins are at ends of appendages with internal bones and muscles=fleshy finned fishes
    • tetrapod limbs evolved from sarcopterygian fins
  54. Image Upload 31
    • lungfishes have a wide variety of forms from Silurian to Devonian
    • body forms differ greatly, depending on location
    • indicates variety of evolutionary histories
  55. Why do fishes have lungs?Image Upload 32
    • Allows intake of air from surface
    • permits animals to live in ephemeral water bodies
    • Survive by burrowing into mud and estivating until water returns
  56. Image Upload 33
    lungfish teeth are unique and easily recognized fossil
  57. Image Upload 34
    • Latimeria
    • extinct and extant coelacanths
    • similar body forms
  58. Cosmine
    same material as dentine
  59. lungfish body forms
    • diverse and successful
    • allow animals to live in less than optimal water environments
    • lungfish groups related to forms that gave rise to tetrapods
    • probably tetrapods arose as fish tried to return to good water
  60. Image Upload 35
    • lungfish 1'2" long
    • Devonian
    • palatal tooth plates but no dermal teeth
  61. Osteolepis
    rhipidistian from Devonian with a heterocercal tail
  62. Eusthenopteron fordi
    • osteolepid
    • one meter long
    • three pointed symmetrical tail
    • labyrinthine teeth
    • fish that allowed understanding of evolution of tetrapod limb bones
    • bones in the fin and limb girdles were of the pattern seen in later evolved tetrapods
    • bones show homologies between those of fish and tetrapods
Author
ID
260381
Card Set
Vertebrate Paleontology
Description
the last of the Agnathans, and the first of the jawed fishes (Gnathostomes)
Updated
Show Answers