How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.
Definition of Perspectives: Evolutionary
How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes.
Definition of Perspectives: Behavior genetics
How our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
Definition of Perspectives: Psychodynamic
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
Definition of Perspectives: Behavioral
How we learn observable responses
Definition of Perspectives: Cognitive
How we encode, process, store and retrieve information.
Definition of Perspectives: Social-cultural
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principals.
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
Survey: Random sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member had an equal chance of inclusion.
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment,; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.