Argued that the crime rate would go down if the amount of punishment were carefully calibrated to deter potential offenders and maximize potential.
An English high sheriff who was so appalled by jail conditions that he undertook a crusade to improve places of detention.
Places of Confinement in England for persons held in lawful custody.
to remove by authority from a state or country
legal sentence requiring the banishment of the offender to a different location.
abandoned or unusable transport ships anchored in rivers and harbors that confined criminal offenders.
Maison De Forcea Belgian workhouse for beggars and miscreants
Maison De Force
a corrections facility designed for incorrigible boys and youth.
Hospice of San Michele
Quaker leader who created the state of Pennsylvania and a system of justice that required compensation of victims and repentance to restore the offender of god's grace
Body of Laws of the Quakers that saw hard labor as more of an effective punishment than death for crimes.
The Great Law
Originally a detention center in which inmates could do penance and repent or turn away from crime, now any larger penal institution for detention of inmates.
First Penitentiary created in Philadelphia by the Quakers.
Walnut Street jail.
The system of prison discipline using isolation or solitary confinement with both a work requirement and moral religious instruction
early prison system requiring inmate silence
prison facility designed on the Pennsylvanian system with rows of individual cells attached to corridors and outside the cells
Prison Cells that do not touch the outside walls of the cell block.
prison model consisting of small individual cells, large work area for group labor, and enforced silence
a punishment program requiring isolation of an inmate cell.
The hiring of inmates to perform work details managed by private entrepreneurs, either while out of or still incarcerated in prison facilties
any penal institution whose main objective is the use of inmate labor to produce marketable products for prison profit.
Federal Legislation that forbids the manufacture and transportation of prison goods by convicts and prisoners
federal legislation requiring "truth of manufacturing,transportation and interstate shipment of prison made goods" by requirement that the packages be plainly and clearly marked
Ashurst- Sumners Act
1st director of the U.S Bureau of Prisons
a supermax island prison for inmates in the San Fran bay area and part of the U.S
irrational fear of prison inmates who can only be managed through head counts,locking, and recounting
a criminal justice program focusing on reducing the manufacture,use,sale, or trafficking of drugs
War on Drugs
getting even with the offender who has violated the rights of others and deserves to be punished
systematic body of ideas and practices
preventing potential behavior by making examples of offenders openly
punishing individual offenders to prevent their further criminal behavior
effect of labeling, interference with ordinary social functioning, and resulting diminishment of offender
stigma of conviction
offenders are unfortunate persons whose education, training, and discipline are inadequate. offenders should be sent to an education penal institution for reform
a relatively minor violation of the criminal law, usually punishable up to one year.
serious criminal violation, sometimes punished by death or sentence more than one year.
process by which the defendant agrees to plead guilty for prosecutorial consideration
punishment imposed by a judge that has both a minimum and maximum period.
sentencing ideology that stresses that any punishment to be applied must be dependent on the culpability of the offender and the seriousness of the offense
a flat sentence of punishment imposed by the sentencing court.
system of sentencing that imposes a predefined sentence length based on prior criminal history and crime severity.
administrative mechanism reducing sentence length by crediting inmates for good behavior, extra work, or other statutory policies
legal requirement that constitutional rights of the accused and correctional clients will conform to guaranteed constitutional protection minimums
decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures,"
mapp v ohio
ruled that state courts are required under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases to represent defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys
gideon v wainwright
protection against self incrimination
miranda v arizona
that ruled on the requirement for a degree of consistency in the application of the death penalty
furman v georgia
the second trying of a suspected offender for the same crime as originally charged
highest appeal court having jurisdiction within that geographical area
court of last resort
any higher court with post conviction authority
court of appeals
a judicial order demanding that another person holding an inmate to produce the same in court, and to justify continued imprisonment.
Writ of habeas Corpus
a court sentence to release the offender to the community under supervision, with possible revocation of sentence if conditions warrant
privilege to avoid punishment by the offender's to a sacred city or location
right of sanctuary
the exclusion of offenders from the death penalty if able to read particular segments of ancient texts.
benefit of clergy
mark of shame and disgrace attached to the offender by virtue of his or her having comitted an offense.
the parent of probation who motivated the creation of probation in Boston.
documentation that results from an investigation undertaken by a court authorized officer or agency. designed to provide info on the defendant so the judge can make an informed sentencing decision
Presentence Investigation Report
Instruments used to determine the probability of recidivism or future criminal behavior.
Risk and Needs assement
additional punishments ordered by the courts to probationers, such as fines, electronic monitoring, and house arrest
Special Conditions of probation
probation sentence change due to the charges that the offender violated the rules imposed by the court, but not by committing a new crime
Technical Probation violation
concept that the probation officer is asked to communicate with the victims and the community, hold the offender accountable, and improve the leadership of probation