Corrections Test 1

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Corrections Test 1
2014-02-05 19:08:36

Chapters 1-5
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  1. Argued that the crime rate would go down if the amount of punishment were carefully calibrated to deter potential offenders and maximize potential.
    Jeremy Bentham
  2. An English high sheriff who was so appalled by jail conditions that he undertook a crusade to improve places of detention.
    John Howard
  3. Places of Confinement in England for persons held in lawful custody.
  4. to remove by authority from a state or country
  5. legal sentence requiring the banishment of the offender to a different location.
  6. abandoned or unusable transport ships anchored in rivers and harbors that confined criminal offenders.
  7. Maison De Forcea Belgian workhouse for beggars and miscreants
    Maison De Force
  8. a corrections facility designed for incorrigible boys and youth.
    Hospice of San Michele
  9. Quaker leader who created the state of Pennsylvania and a system of justice that required compensation of victims and repentance to restore the offender of god's grace
    William Penn
  10. Body of Laws of the Quakers that saw hard labor as more of an effective punishment than death for crimes.
    The Great Law
  11. Originally a detention center in which inmates could do penance and repent or turn away from crime, now any larger penal institution for detention of inmates.
  12. First Penitentiary created in Philadelphia by the Quakers.
    Walnut Street jail.
  13. The system of prison discipline using isolation or solitary confinement with both a work requirement and moral religious instruction
    Pennsylvania System
  14. early prison system requiring inmate silence
    Pennsylvania System
  15. prison facility designed on the Pennsylvanian system with rows of individual cells attached to corridors and outside the cells
    Eastern penitentiary
  16. Prison Cells that do not touch the outside walls of the cell block.
    Inside Cells
  17. prison model consisting of small individual cells, large work area for group labor, and enforced silence
    Auburn System
  18. a punishment program requiring isolation of an inmate cell.
    Solitary Confinement
  19. The hiring of inmates to perform work details managed by private entrepreneurs, either while out of or still incarcerated in prison facilties
    Lease System
  20. any penal institution whose main objective is the use of inmate labor to produce marketable products for prison profit.
    Industrial Prison
  21. Federal Legislation that forbids the manufacture and transportation of prison goods by convicts and prisoners
    Hawes-Cooper Act
  22. federal legislation requiring "truth of manufacturing,transportation and interstate shipment of prison made goods" by requirement that the packages be plainly and clearly marked
    Ashurst- Sumners Act
  23. 1st director of the U.S Bureau of Prisons
    Sanford Bates
  24. a supermax island prison for inmates in the San Fran bay area and part of the U.S
  25. irrational fear of prison inmates who can only be managed through head counts,locking, and recounting
    Convict Bogey
  26. a criminal justice program focusing on reducing the manufacture,use,sale, or trafficking of drugs
    War on Drugs
  27. getting even with the offender who has violated the rights of others and deserves to be punished
  28. systematic body of ideas and practices
  29. preventing potential behavior by making examples of offenders openly
    General deterrence
  30. punishing individual offenders to prevent their further criminal behavior
    specific deterrence
  31. effect of labeling, interference with ordinary social functioning, and resulting diminishment of offender
    stigma of conviction
  32. offenders are unfortunate persons whose education, training, and discipline are inadequate. offenders should be sent to an education penal institution for reform
    Reformatory movement
  33. a relatively minor violation of the criminal law, usually punishable up to one year.
  34. serious criminal violation, sometimes punished by death or sentence more than one year.
  35. process by which the defendant agrees to plead guilty for prosecutorial consideration
    Plea bargaining
  36. punishment imposed by a judge that has both a minimum and maximum period.
    Indeterminate sentencing
  37. sentencing ideology that stresses that any punishment to be applied must be dependent on the culpability of the offender and the seriousness of the offense
    Just Desserts
  38. a flat sentence of punishment imposed by the sentencing court.
    Determinate sentencing
  39. system of sentencing that imposes a predefined sentence length  based on prior criminal history and crime severity.
    sentencing guidelines
  40. administrative mechanism reducing sentence length by crediting inmates for good behavior, extra work, or other statutory policies
    Good-Time policies
  41. legal requirement that constitutional rights of the accused and correctional clients will conform to guaranteed constitutional protection minimums
    due process
  42. decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures,"
    mapp v ohio
  43. ruled that state courts are required under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases to represent defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys
    gideon v wainwright
  44. protection against self incrimination
    miranda v arizona
  45. that ruled on the requirement for a degree of consistency in the application of the death penalty
    furman v georgia
  46. the second trying of a suspected offender for the same crime as originally charged
    double jeopardy
  47. highest appeal court having jurisdiction within that geographical area
    court of last resort
  48. any higher court with post conviction authority
    court of appeals
  49. a judicial order demanding that another person holding an inmate to produce the same in court, and to justify continued imprisonment.
    Writ of habeas Corpus
  50. a court sentence to release the offender to the community under supervision, with possible revocation of sentence if conditions warrant
  51. privilege to avoid punishment by the offender's to a sacred city or location
    right of sanctuary
  52. the exclusion of offenders from the death penalty if able to read particular segments of ancient texts.
    benefit of clergy
  53. mark of shame and disgrace attached to the offender by virtue of his or her having comitted an offense.
  54. the parent of probation who motivated the creation of probation in Boston.
    John Augustus
  55. documentation that results from an investigation undertaken by a court authorized officer or agency. designed to provide info on the defendant so the judge can make an informed sentencing decision
    Presentence Investigation Report
  56. Instruments used to determine the probability of recidivism or future criminal behavior.
    Risk and Needs assement
  57. additional punishments ordered by the courts to probationers, such as fines, electronic monitoring, and house arrest
    Special Conditions of probation
  58. probation sentence change due to the charges that the offender violated the rules imposed by the court, but not by committing a new crime
    Technical Probation violation
  59. concept that the probation officer is asked to communicate with the victims and the community, hold the offender accountable, and improve the leadership of probation
    broken windows probation