Pharmacology Chapter 8-9

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Pharmacology Chapter 8-9
2014-02-05 17:34:13
pharmacology exam

pharmacology exam 1
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  1. Anti-infectives
    drug class that targets foreign organisms by the process of selective toxicity (affect proteins or enzymes characteristic of foreign organisms but not used by human cells.
  2. Mechanisms of action do what?
    • 1. Interere with biosynthesis of the cell wall (penicillins)
    • 2. Block use of substances necessary for cell growth and development (sulfonamides)
    • 3. Interference with protein synthesis so hinders cell division (aminoglycosides)
    • 4. Interferes with DNA synthesis so unable to devide (fluoroguinolones)
    • 5. Alter cell permeability (antifungals, antiprotozoans)
  3. Narrow spectrum drug
    only works on a few types of infections
  4. Broad spectrum drug
    works on wide range of organisms across many types of infections
  5. Bactericidal
    cause cell death of bacteria
  6. Bacteriostatic
    control growth of the bacteria and then the immune system takes care of it
  7. prophylaxis
    preventative antibiotic
  8. The goal of a drug is to reduce organisms to the point that
    human immune reponse can counter and remove invading organisms
  9. Natural resistancce
    if the mechanism of action of the drug is aimed at a process that the foreign organism does not use
  10. Acquired resistance
    organisms develop over time resistance to drugs that used to be effective
  11. Methods of Aquired resistance
    Bacteria can produce enzyme that deactivate the drug (production of penicillinase by bacteria against penicillin)

    Alter cellular permeability

    Alter binding sites on membranes or ribosomses

    Produce a chemical that antagonizes the drug action
  12. Steps to effectively treating systemic infection
    • 1. Identify the pathogen through culture
    • 2. Determine sensitivity
    • 3. Multiple antibiotics sometimes used to treat systemic infection 
  13. Adverse reactions to anti-infectives
    • 1.   Kidney toxicity
    • 2.   GI toxicity (Nausea/Vomiting/Diarrhea)
    • 3.   Neurotoxicity (dizziness, hearing, lethargy)
    • 4.   Hypersensitivity/Allergy
    • 5.   Superinfections
    • Multidrug Resistant Organisms (TB, Gonorria , MRSA)
  14. Antibiotics
    • - drugs that inhibit or kill bacteria

  15. Gram _____ bacteria are found in infections of respiratory system and soft tissue
  16. Gram _______ bacteria are found in infections of GI and GU
  17. Gram _____ responsible for TB, strep throat, strep pneumoniae
  18. Gram _______ responsible for gonorrhea, aspirate pneumonia
  19. Bactericidal Cell Wall Inhibitors
    • Penicillins (B lactam drugs) and cephalosporings.  (Beta Lactam drugs have a beta lactam ring in center and include PCN, cephalosporins, carbapenems)
  20. DNA inhibitors
    • inhibit needed enzymes, introduce defective building blocks, destroy sequencing of DNA.  Quinolones,  Metronidazole
  21. Antimetabolites
    • - block folate pathway and inhibit production of DNA, RNA, protein.  Sulfonamides
  22. Protein Synthesis inhibitors
    • target several steps such as copying mRNA code, target actual ribosomal synthesis of mRNA.  Can bind to normal human cell ribosomes in rapidly dividing GI, skin, and bone marrow, kidney and liver and cause toxicities.  Aminoglycosides, macrolides, TCN.
  23. Children tend to have a lot of ____ effects from antibiotics. The younger the child, the more problematic that can be.
  24. the average number of colds in the first year of an infant
  25. Amnioglycoside
  26. Cephalosporin
  27. Fluoroguinolones
  28. Macrolides
  29. Penicillins
  30. Sulfonamides
  31. Tetracyclines
  32. Antimycobacterial