Comm Exam 1

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  1. culture
    a group of people who share the same beliefs/behaviors
  2. co-culture
    a group within a larger group/culture. primarily, divisions within nation states (i.e.- CNU, skateboarders)
  3. intercultural communication
    interaction that puts two people or groups from cultural backgrounds together
  4. cross-cultural communication
    used for comparison of culture groups
  5. interracial communication
    people communicating from different races
  6. enculturation
    process by which we learn our primary culture. not aware that you're being taught/teaching
  7. acculturation
    process of learning another culture (not primary). difference from enculturation. you are aware that you are learning a new culture because you are comparing it to your primary/dominant culture
  8. ethnocentrism
    belief that the culture you have is better compared to other cultures, seen as both good and bad depending on the consequences and the outcome (cultures are not better or worse, just different)
  9. What are some good and bad effects of ethnocentrism?
    • bad: ineffective communication, ignore other ideas, colonialization, i.e. Taliban v US
    • good: settling new land, Declaration of Independence, unity within a country, i.e. after the attack on Pearl Harbor, it took the US less than 6 months to "prepare" for the war when we were expected to take at least 2 years
  10. Geert Hofstede's Dimensions
    • masculinity/femininity
    • high/low uncertainty avoidance
    • individualism/collectivism
    • high/low power distance
  11. masculine dimension
    goal driven, achievement, confidence, competitive, strength, constant fight for dominance
  12. feminine dimension
    concern, nurturing, cooperative, unity, inherent concern for the other individual, want a relationship that works for the greater good of society
  13. high/low uncertainty avoidance
    • high: shy away from new situations
    • low: willing to try new things
  14. individualism
    culture based around the individual rather than the community, award/merit based
  15. collectivism
    culture based around the community rather than the individual
  16. high/low power distance
    • high: more distance between "classes" in the hierarchy, less likely to interact with each other
    • low: can question power/authority
  17. High/Low context
    meaning inferred from the setting rather than what is explicitly stated. understanding is based on what is implied rather than what is said
  18. polychronic/monoochronic (displaced time orientation/diffused time orientation)
    exact versus approximate uses of time
  19. Name and describe the four stages of Culture Shock
    • honeymoon (everything is new and exciting learn
    • differences between cultures, about 2 weeks)
    • crisis (not knowing how to do
    • basic things, about 6 months)
    • recovery (able to communicate/interact with
    • people, function, some never leave this stage)
    • adjustment (acquired
    • language/culture to appear as a member of the culture, some never reach this
    • level)
  20. Name and describe the four stages of Culture Shock
    • honeymoon (everything is new and exciting learn
    • differences between cultures, about 2 weeks)
    • crisis (not knowing how to do
    • basic things, about 6 months)
    • recovery (able to communicate/interact with
    • people, function, some never leave this stage)
    • adjustment (acquired
    • language/culture to appear as a member of the culture, some never reach this
    • level)
  21. social construct
    something we have created as a society
  22. examples of phenotypic differences
    bone structure, skin color
  23. ethnicity
    geographic heritage
  24. Francois Bernier
    (1684) classified people by Europeans, Africans, Orientals and Lapps
  25. Artur de Gobineau
    (mids 1800s) classified people by color: white, black, yellow
  26. Yohann Friedrich Blumenbach
    (1775/1795) On the Natural Variety of Mankind, based on the work of Linnaeus, Europacus, Americanus, Asiaticus, Afer (hierarchy)
  27. Kenneth Burk
    The Rhetoric of Hitler's Battles, predicted Hitler's battle moves by his rhetoric
  28. communication
    the process of understanding and sharing meaning. not a product (end result), but a process. simultaneous feedback. requires a sender and a receiver
  29. Cornell
  30. Midwestern
  31. interpersonal communication
    "the process of message transaction between people to create and sustain shared meaning"
  32. self
    identity or face
  33. four layers of identity
    • personal (core of the individual, focus of the identity, how people would define themselves)
    • enactment (communication, focus on messages)
    • relational (relationship becomes the focus)
    • communal (group status that allows us to have some sort of identity, identify with some groups more than others)
  34. big five personality characteristics
    • extraversion: outgoing/talkative
    • agreeableness: compassion, lovable
    • conscientiousness: thoughtful, good impulse, organized
    • neuroticsm: emotional instability, sad, irritable
    • openness: imagination, insight
  35. identification through relationship
    the way you label yourself in the context of a relationship (aunt, uncle, spouse, etc)
  36. relationship
    identifying ourselves based on the relationship itself, the relationship itself becomes a unit of identity (couple, become part of a unit)
  37. categorization
    categorize people
  38. ascription
    forces people into groups that they might not fit into, stereotyping, changing how we treat someone based on this assumption
  39. perform identity
    how someone expresses himself and their position (i.e. upper level teacher vs teaching an intro course)
  40. Communication Theory of Identity (CTI)
    explains how individuals develop their identity over time and how someone performs identity
  41. Why do perceptions differ?
    • physiological differences (professor cannot distinguish color)
    • past experiences (having a bad class in this room)
    • culture and co-culture
    • present feelings and circumstances (thinking that class is too early)
  42. face needs
    • fellowship face: need to have other people accept and like us
    • autonomy face: desire to make sure no one imposes on the image of our face or on us. do not want threats on individuality
    • competence face: need to be seen as smart/intelligent
  43. Face threatening acts (FTAs)
    anything that would threaten the face you have made to other people
  44. face movements (dual-concern)
    have a concern for both my face and the face of other people. (mutual face protection, other face protection, self face protection, mutual face obliteration)
  45. mutual face protection
    works to ensure that both people maintain positive face. less likely to engage in any face threatening act. highly concerned for own and other face. (romantic relationship, relationship with boss)
  46. other face protection
    self deprecation, concern for other face but not your own, making sure that the other person saves face, but not yourself (with children or significant others)
  47. self face protection
    no matter what, you want to come out with positive face, doesn't matter how the other person looks, high concern for ourselves, no concern for the other person (regarding something that might get you fired)
  48. mutual face obliteration
    do not care what happens in the scenario, do not care how either person looks, willing to win at all costs, low concern for either face (a student might use this in an argument with a professor, where the professor would be using self face protection)
  49. self esteem
    fluctuates, our evaluation of who we perceive ourselves to be
  50. androgyny
    a gender role distinguished by a combo of masculine and feminine characteristics
  51. self concept
    • our understanding of who we are in relation to others (stable)
    • sources: social comparison (modeling), social learning theory, most concepts learned between 0-6 are "set in stone"
Card Set:
Comm Exam 1
2014-04-28 23:41:16
interpersonal communication goen test
Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal Communication (Test 1)
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