A&P I Integumentary

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Morgan_001
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260505
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A&P I Integumentary
Updated:
2014-02-05 23:46:08
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integumentary system
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integumentary
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  1. 7 Functions of the Integumentary system
    • protection
    • excretion
    • temperature maintenance
    • production of melanin and keratin
    • synthesis of Vitamin D3
    • storage 
    • detection
  2. 2 Components of Skin
    • epidermis 
    • dermis
  3. How many distinct cell types are there?
    4
  4. What are the 2 classifications of the stratified squamous epithelium?
    • thin 
    • thick
  5. What are the 4 cell types of the epidermis?
    • keratinocytes
    • melanocytes
    • dendritic
    • tactile
  6. what are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
    • 1. stratum basale
    • 2. stratum spinosum
    • 3. stratum granulosum
    • 4. stratum lucidum 
    • 5. stratum corneum
  7. how is the stratum basale connected?
    linked tightly by hemidesmosomes
  8. how much of the stratum basale is made up of melanocytes?
    10-25%
  9. what are the functions of merkel cells?
    touch and sensation
  10. how many layers are in the stratum spinosum?
    8-10
  11. what are the actual coloring of your skin?
    granules
  12. the stratum spinosum is the most abundant site of _________ ___________ and ___________ _____________.
    • melanin granules 
    • dendritic cells
  13. what are dendritic cells in the spinosum?
    branching immune cells
  14. how many layers are in the stratum granulosum?
    4-6
  15. what is the main function of the stratum granulosum?
    make keratin
  16. what happens during the making of keratin?
    • cells flatten
    • organelles disintegrate
    • become water resistant
  17. what happens at the end of the stratum granulosum?
    the cells die
  18. how many layers are in the stratum lucidum?
    2-3
  19. properties of stratum lucidum
    • clear layer
    • able to transmit light
    • only in thick skin
  20. what are the properties of the cells in the stratum lucidum?
    • flattened
    • densely packed
    • dead
    • filled with keratin
  21. stratum lucidum in a nutshell
    nothing but water resistant membranes surrounding keratin
  22. how many layers are in the stratum corneum?
    20-30
  23. where is the stratum corneum?
    everywhere but the anterior eye
  24. how long does it take for cells to move from SB to SC?
    7-10 days
  25. how long do cells spend in the stratum corneum?
    2 weeks
  26. skin color is affected by...(2)
    • pigmentation
    • dermal circulation
  27. 3 pigments
    • carotene
    • melanin
    • hemoglobin
  28. carotene
    • corneum
    • in orange or yellow veggies
    • can make up visual pigments
  29. melanin
    • basale 
    • brown
    • color based on activity- not number
  30. hemoglobin
    circulation and oxygenation of blood
  31. why is melanin more apical?
    to get more sunlight
  32. rickets
    lack of cholecalcified or vitamin D3 on bone development
  33. what are the 2 major components of the dermis ?
    • papillary layer
    • reticular layer
  34. where can you find the papillary layer?
    capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons
  35. what kind of tissue is papillary?
    areolar loose connective tissue proper
  36. the papillary layer allows _____ cells to ______
    immune, patrol
  37. nipple or fingerlike projection
    papill (dermal papillae)
  38. what causes the friction ridges in your fingers that are genetically determined (fingerprints)
    dermal papillae
  39. which layer makes up about 80% of your dermis?
    reticular
  40. what type of tissue is the reticular layer made of?
    dense irregular connective tissue proper
  41. the dense irregular connective tissue proper in the reticular layer includes:
    • pockets of adipocytes 
    • interlacing collagen fibers
    • some elastic fibers
  42. what is the structure of most of the interlacing collagen fibers in the reticular layer?
    most run parallel to structure
  43. where is the cutaneous plexus?
    between the reticular layer and hypodermis
  44. pattern of fiber bundles in skin
    not visible externally
    important to surgeons
    cleavage (tension) lines
  45. what do the tactile corpuscles detect?
    light touch
  46. what do the lamellar corpuscles detect?
    deep touch and pressure
  47. what type of tissue is the hypodermis made of?
    areolar and adipose
  48. because it is a superficial region with large vessels, the hyperdermis is considered a...
    blood reservoir
  49. true or false. 
    the hypodermis is not part of the integumentary system.
    true
  50. what is the main purpose of hair?
    protection and sensation
  51. what is the average amount of hair on the human body?
    2.5 million
  52. what percentage of hair is not on your head?
    75%
  53. hair is produced in...
    hair follicles
  54. nerve ending surrounding the follicle
    root hair plexus
  55. muscle pulling on hair follicle allowing it to stand up
    arrector pili
  56. epidermal derivatives
    ?????
  57. what are the 2 types of hair?
    • vellus 
    • terminal
  58. majority of hairs on your body
    vellus
  59. the hair on top of your head
    terminal
  60. condition in which there is excessive hair growth
    hirsutism
  61. condition in which there is a lack of hair growth
    alopecia
  62. what type of tissue is the follicle wall made of?
    epithelial
  63. sebaceous glands
    • secret oil
    • simple, branched, alveolar glands
  64. sebum
    secretion made of oil and disintegrated pieces of cell
  65. which follicle is:
    large
    not associated with hair follicles
    discharge sebum onto epidermis to keep your skin conditioned
    sebaceous follicles
  66. this gland secretes sweat
    sudoriferous
  67. what are the 2 types of sudoriferous glands?
    • eccrine (merocrine)
    • apocrine
  68. which type of sudoriferous gland is...
    numerous and widespread
    secretes (mainly sweat) onto skin surface sensible perspiration (you can sense your sweat)
    eccrine
  69. which type of sudoriferous gland is...
    larger and deeper
    empties into hair follicles
    produces lipid in the secretion that is responsible for body odor
    apocrine
  70. what are 2 other integumentary glands?
    • mammary
    • ceruminous (ear wax)
  71. What are the 4 stages of regeneration of integument?
    • 1. scab or clot
    • 2. cells of SB migrate along edge of wound
    • phagocytes remove debris
    • granulation tissue formed
    • 3. epidermal cells migrate over mesh
    • 4. fibroblasts in debris continue scar tissue creation

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