A&P 1 Ch 3 Cell

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A&P 1 Ch 3 Cell
2014-02-06 16:16:39

A&P 1 Ch 3 Cell
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  1. Cell theory
    • -cells are building blocks
    • -cells come from division of preexisting cells
    • -smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions
    • -cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level
  2. Two general classes of cells
    • -sex cells
    • -somatic cells
  3. Sex cells
    Sperm and oocytes
  4. All cells in body except sex cells
    Somatic cells
  5. Outer boundary of the cell
    Plasma membrane
  6. Major functions of cell membrane:
    • -physical isolation
    • -regulation of exchange with the environment
    • -sensitivity to the environment
    • -structural support
  7. phospholipids molecules form in two layers in the plasma membrane to form the
    Phospholipid bilayer
  8. Proteins organized in fine filaments or slender tubes
    -strength and support
    -movement of cellular structures and materials
  9. Lipid bilayer containing phospholipids, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates
    -isolation.           - controls entry and exit or
    -protection             materials
    Plasma membrane
  10. Membrane extensions containing microfilaments
    -increase surface area
    -facilitates absorption of extracellular materials
  11. Long extensions containing microtubules doublets
    -movement of material over cell surface
  12. RNA + proteins; free and fixed
    - protein synthesis
  13. Vesicles containing digestive enzymes
    -intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens
  14. Stacks of flattened membranes containing chambers
    -storage, alteration and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes
    Golgi apparatus
  15. Double membrane, with inner membrane enclosing important metabolic enzymes
    -produce 95% of  ATP required by cell
  16. network of membranous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm
    -synthesis of secretory products
    -intracellular storage and transport
    endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  17. part of the membrane structure; can't be removed without damaging the membrane
    integral proteins
  18. bound to the inner or outer surface of the membrane and are easily separated from it
    peripheral proteins
  19. these attach the plasma membrane to other structures and stabilize its position
    anchoring proteins
  20. cells of the immune system recognize other cells as normal or abnormal based on the presence or absence of characteristics
    recognition proteins
  21. are in the plasma membrane and are sensitive to the specific extracellular molecules
    receptor proteins
  22. these bind solutes and transport them across the plasma membrane
    carrier protiens
  23. intracellular fluid; contains dissolved nutrients, ions, soluble and insoluble proteins and waste
  24. difference between cytosol and extracellular fluids:
    • -concentration of potassium is higher in cytosol
    • -sodium ions are much lower in cytosol
    • - cytosol usually contains small quantities of carbs, and small reserves of amino acids & lipids
  25. structures of the cell that are not completely enclosed by membranes
    nonmembranous organelles
  26. structures of the cell that are isolated from the cytosol by phospholipid membranes
    membranous organelles
  27. nonmembranous organelles include:
    cytoskeleton, microvilli, cilia, and ribosomes
  28. membranous organelles include:
    endoplasmic reticulum, golgi aparatus, lysosomes, and mitochondria
  29. functions as the cell's skeleton
  30. 3 parts of cytoskeleton
    • -microfilaments
    • -intermediate filaments
    • -microtubules
  31. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) functions:
    • -synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol
    • -synthesis of steroid hormones
    • -synthesis and storage of glycerides
    • -synthesis and storage of glycogen
  32. rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) functions:
    a combination workshop and shipping warehouse
  33. these deliver their contents to the golgi apparatus
    transport vesicles
  34. each glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate
  35. mitochondrial energy production
    • -glycolysis
    • -pyruvate absorption
    • -energy released during to support conversion of ATP
  36. fluid contents of the nucleus
  37. nucleoplasm contains:
    ions, enzymes, RNA and DNA
  38. the "chemical language" the cell uses is
    the genetic code
  39. functional unit of heredity; contains all the DNA triplets needed to produce specific proteins
  40. binding is the first step in ___.  the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
    transcription (to copy)
  41. the synthesis of _______ is essential, because DNA can't leave the nucleus
    messenger RNA (mRNA)
  42. a three-base mRNA sequence is called a
  43. amino acids are provided by ______ ,a relatively small and mobile type of RNA 
    transfer RNA (tRNA)
  44. the net movement of a substance from an area of higher concentrationto an area of lower concentration
  45. the difference between high and low concentrations is a
    concentration gradient
  46. Factors that influence diffusion rates:
    • -distance
    • -molecule size
    • -temp
    • -concentration gradient
    • -electrical forces
  47. net diffusion of water across a membrane
  48. basic characterisitics of osmosis:
    • -diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
    • -water flows towards solution with higher concentrations (low water concentration)
  49. an indication of a force with which pure water moves into that solution as a result of its solute concentration
    osmotic pressure
  50. the pushing against a fluid generates
    hydrostatic pressure
  51. total solute concentration in an aqueous solution
    tonicity (osmolarity)
  52. a solution that does not cause an osmotic flow of water into or out of a cell
  53. in a ____  _____, water will flow into the cell, causing it to swell up like a balloon
    hypotonic solution
  54. a cell that is in a _____  _____ will lose water by osmosis; cell shrink up
    hypertonic solution
  55. in ____ ____ _____, integral proteins bind specific ions or organic substrates and carry them across the plasma membrane
    carrier-mediated transport
  56. substances can be passively transported across the membrane by carrier proteins in a process called
    facilitated diffusion
  57. high-energy bond (in ATP) provides the energy needed to move ions or molecules across the membrane
    active transport
  58. materials move into or out of the cell in vesicles in
    vesicular transport
  59. extracellular materials are packaged in vesicles at the cell surface and are imported into the cell
  60. "cell-drinking"
  61. "cell-eating"
  62. a vesicle created inside the cell fuses with, and becomes part of, the plasma membrane
  63. order of Mitosis
    PMAT; prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
  64. stage in mitosis when the chromosomes coil so tightly they become visible as single structures
  65. stage in mitosis when the chromatids move to a narrow central zone called the middle (___) plate
  66. stage in mitosis when the centromere of each chromatid pair splits and the chromatids separate
  67. stage in mitosis when the each new cell prepares to return to the interphase state; almost completely split
  68. division of the cytoplasm to form two distinct new cells
  69. somatic cells spend most of their functional lives in a state known as
  70. a mass or swelling produced by abnormal cell growth and division
  71. the spreading of tumor cells is called
  72. malignant cells travel to distant tissues and organs and establish secondary tumors in a dispersion called
  73. an illness characterized by mutations that disrupt normal control mechanisms and produce potentially malignant cells called