Lateral Ventricles, Third Ventricle, Central Aqueduct, Fourth Ventricle. (all attached together)
Lateral ventricles- in cerebral heispheres, separated anteriorly by septum pellucidum, below corpus collosumThird Ventricle-in diencephalon, connects to laterals via interventricular foramen, between thalami
Cerebral aqueduct- thin, tubelike
Fourth ventricle- brain stem, forsal to pons and superiod half of medulla oblongata. Connects to central canal.
choroid plexus- capillaries lining ventricles that produce CSF in fourth ventricle
The brain stem
Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
-produces the automatic behaviors necessary for survival,
-acts as passageway from cerebrum to spinal cord,
-10 of 12 cranial nerves attach to it.
Conical, lowest part of brain stem, connects to spinal cord at foramen magnum.
regulates: breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure
between medulla oblongata and midbrain
contains respiratory centers.
the cerebellar peduncles link the cerebellum with the pons, this is wherecerebellum received motor movement information
the most superior part of the brain stem lying between the diencephalon (thalami) and the pons.
cerebral peduncles- ventral part of the midbrain form vertical pillars
corpora quadrigemia-make up the tectum, the anterior part of the midbrain. has four colliculi ("little hills") on the dorsal part
superior collicus-visual reflexes (turning our head when we see something in the periphery)
inferior collicus-reflexive responses to sounds
Blood brain- barrier
special endothelium of brain capillaries that is sealed with tight junctions.
Fat and gas can pass through and other molecules through active transport
originating from subclavian artery, pass through the foramen magnum to unite and form basilar artery
central artery anterior to brain stem that branches to cerebellum, pons and inner ear
internal carotid arteries
paired, from common carotid arteries, passing through carotid canal of temporal one
cerebral arterial circle of Willis
encircles the pituitary gland uniting anterior and posterior circulations
Cranial nerves: Where do they attach? What do they innervate? What is the mnemonic?
12 cranial nerves.
first two attach to the forebrain, the others to the brain stem.
They all innervate the head and neck except vagus nerve (X) which extends to abdomen.
Oh Oh Oh, To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet, AH.
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory: Smelling nerves
purely sensory, Has olfactory bulb and olfactory tract (passes through to cerebral cortex of occipital lobe to be interpreted
Cranial Nerve II
Optic nerve: arises from retina of the eye
Creates X on forebrain. Optic Chiasm is center of the X, Optic tract is posterior to chiasm leading to the thalamus
Cranial Nerve III:
Oculomotor: "eye mover"
innervates four four muscles that move the eye around, constricts pupil
Cranial Nerve IV
Trochlear Nerve: "pulley", motor nerve
arises near corpora quadrigemina of inferior colliculi
enters the superior orbital fissure to innervate superior oblique muscle of the eye that
Cranial nerve V
largest cranial nerve, originates lateral to pons
Sensory:face, teeth and tongue, Motor: mastication muscles
Good for dentists to numb
Opthalamic division I: transmitted through superior orbital fissure, innervates forehead and scalp
Maxillary division V2: through foramen rotundum to upper jaw region
Mandibular division V3: through foramen ovale, lower jaw region
Cranial Nerve VI
Abducens: "abducts" the eye
innervates the lateral rectus of the eye through superior orbital fissue
Cranial nerve VII
just lateral to pons, first of four nerves in a row.
Through stylomastoid foramen, internal acoustic meatus, innervates facial expression, salivary glands, taste buds (sensory) and lacrimal gland (tears)
Cranial Nerve VIII
enters at pons and medulla border, inferior to facial nerve VII, through internal acoutic meatus
involved in equilibrium and balance. Sensory: hearing, balance and posture
Cranial Nerve IX
From medulla, leave through jugular foramen. Innervates swallowing and salivary gland muscles (motor) and taste buds (sensory)
Cranial nerve X
through jugular foramen, innervates muscles for swallowing, respitory tract, heart, esophagus, and abdominal viscera. 70% of parasmpathetic division of ANS
Cranial nerve XI
On medula and spinal cord. through jugular foramen.
innervates trapezius and sternoclaidomastoid to move head, neck and shoulders (strictly motor)
Cranial nerve XII
more in front of medula.
Goes through hypoglossal canal to innervate the tongue muscles (motor)