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  1. first law of thermodynamics
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
  2. second law of thermodynamics
    Energy tends to disperse.
  3. activation energy
    Minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction.
  4. ATP
    Adenosine triphosphate; the main energy carrier between reaction sites in cells.
  5. phosphorylation
    Phosphate-group transfer.
  6. product
    A molecule remaining at the end of a reaction.
  7. reactant
    Molecule that enters a reaction.
  8. reaction
    Process of chemical change.
  9. active site
    Pocket in an enzyme where substrates bind and a reaction occurs.
  10. allosteric
    Describes a region of an enzyme other than the active site that can bind regulatory molecules.
  11. coenzyme
    An organic molecule that is a cofactor.
  12. cofactor
    A metal ion or a coenzyme that associates with an enzyme and is necessary for its function.
  13. enzyme
    Protein or RNA that speeds a reaction without being changed by it.
  14. feedback inhibition
    Mechanism by which a change that results from some activity decreases or stops the activity.
  15. metabolic pathway
    Series of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells build, remodel, or break down an organic molecule.
  16. substrate
    A reactant molecule that is specifically acted upon by an enzyme.
  17. concentration
    The number of molecules or ions per unit volume of a fluid.
  18. concentration gradient
    Difference in concentration between adjoining regions of fluid.
  19. diffusion
    Net movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are more concentrated to a region where they are less so.
  20. electron transfer chain
    Array of enzymes and other molecules that accept and give up electrons in sequence, thus releasing the energy of the electrons in usable increments.
  21. osmosis
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  22. osmotic pressure
    Amount of turgor that prevents osmosis into cytoplasm or other hypertonic fluid.
  23. turgor
    Pressure that a fluid exerts against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that contains it.
  24. active transport
    Energy-requiring mechanism by which a transport protein pumps a solute across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient.
  25. passive transport
    Mechanism by which a concentration gradient drives the movement of a solute across a cell membrane through a transport protein. Requires no energy input.
  26. endocytosis
    Process by which a cell takes in a small amount of extracellular fluid by the ballooning inward of its plasma membrane.
  27. exocytosis
    Process by which a cell expels a vesicle’s contents to extracellular fluid.
  28. phagocytosis
    Endocytic pathway by which a cell engulfs particles such as microbes or cellular debris.
Card Set:
2014-02-06 18:42:25

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