Card Set Information
first law of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
second law of thermodynamics
Energy tends to disperse.
Minimum amount of energy required to start a reaction.
Adenosine triphosphate; the main energy carrier between reaction sites in cells.
A molecule remaining at the end of a reaction.
Molecule that enters a reaction.
Process of chemical change.
Pocket in an enzyme where substrates bind and a reaction occurs.
Describes a region of an enzyme other than the active site that can bind regulatory molecules.
An organic molecule that is a cofactor.
A metal ion or a coenzyme that associates with an enzyme and is necessary for its function.
Protein or RNA that speeds a reaction without being changed by it.
Mechanism by which a change that results from some activity decreases or stops the activity.
Series of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells build, remodel, or break down an organic molecule.
A reactant molecule that is specifically acted upon by an enzyme.
The number of molecules or ions per unit volume of a fluid.
Difference in concentration between adjoining regions of fluid.
Net movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are more concentrated to a region where they are less so.
electron transfer chain
Array of enzymes and other molecules that accept and give up electrons in sequence, thus releasing the energy of the electrons in usable increments.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Amount of turgor that prevents osmosis into cytoplasm or other hypertonic fluid.
Pressure that a fluid exerts against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that contains it.
Energy-requiring mechanism by which a transport protein pumps a solute across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient.
Mechanism by which a concentration gradient drives the movement of a solute across a cell membrane through a transport protein. Requires no energy input.
Process by which a cell takes in a small amount of extracellular fluid by the ballooning inward of its plasma membrane.
Process by which a cell expels a vesicles contents to extracellular fluid.
Endocytic pathway by which a cell engulfs particles such as microbes or cellular debris.