Sociology Exam 1

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  1. The study of society and human behavior
  2. What is the main goal of sociology ?
    understanding and predict human behavior
  3. "Social imagination"
    Sociological perspective
  4. Understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
    sociological perspective
  5. Example of Sociological perspective
    Buying a car
  6. _____________ is the group memberships that people have because of their location in _____ or __________
    Social location / time / place
  7. Who are the 4 Fathers of sociology?
    Comte , Spencer, Marx , Durkeim
  8. Founder of sociology
    Coined the term "sociology"
  9. who came up with positivism
  10. Applying the scientific approach to the social world
  11. Came up with social Darwinism and coined the term "survival of the fittest"
  12. the belief that interference with the natural process will weaken all of society
    social Darwinism
  13. the root of all that happens socially
    example ?
    • class conflict
    • exploitation of workers
  14. came up with class conflict
  15. Upper class; the owners (Marx)
  16. Lower class; the workers (Marx)
  17. The first person that got sociology as a separate academic discipline
  18. Who created the social intergration / suicide study?
  19. the degree in which people are tied to their social group
    social integration
  20. level of analysis - small level, focuses on small groups --- face to face interaction
    micro level
  21. level of analysis - larger level, large groups and whole societies --- not field work, data
    Macro level
  22. a statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of two or more facts are related to one another
  23. What are the three main theoretical perspectives
    • symbolic interaction
    • functional analysis
    • conflict theory
  24. a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, developing their views and the world, and communicate with one another
    Examples of two most used symbols
    & one every day example
    • symbolic interactionism
    • language and writing
    • road signs
  25. __________ separate us from the animal world, define our relationships make decision by our action, make social life possible
  26. a theoretical perspective framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with function that, when fulfilled, ,contributes to society's equilibrium, society is a functional unit with each part related as a whole
    • Functional analysis
    • car motor when running
  27. How the parts of society fit together, deal with more of the whole (the big picture of the puzzle)
  28. how each part contributes to the whole (each piece of the puzzle)
  29. a theorical framework in which society is viewed as composesd of groups that are competing for scarce resources
    • Conflict theory
    • power for authority, family time
  30. 3 Types of Research Methods with explanations
    • surveys - collecting data with series of question
    • documents/written sources - books magazines
    • experiments - independent and dependent variable
  31. the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from 1 generation to the next (the learned and shared ways of believing and doing)
  32. material objects that distinguish a group of people
    • material culture
    • jewelry, clothes, fashion
  33. "lines of logic"
  34. the nontangible, a groups way of thinking and patterns of behavior
    • nonmaterial culture
    • language
  35. Coming into contact with a radically difficult culture
    culture shock
  36. How to deal with culture shock
    • ethnocentrism
    • cultural relativism
  37. using our own culture to judge other cultures
  38. an attempt to appreciate other cultures without judging them as inferior to our own
    Culture Relativism
  39. language through body movement
  40. spoken or written
  41. the standards by which people define good and bad, beautiful and ugly, right and wrong etc.
  42. Example of values
    success and competition, seeing as getting ahead
  43. The expectations or rule of behavior that match or develop from our values
    • Norms
    • to succeed in the US you must have college degree
  44. reactions to the way in which people follow norms
  45. type of sanction; something we get for following the norms correctly
    • positive
    • smile trophy promotion
  46. type of sanction reaction of disapproval
    • negative
    • punishment , ticket
  47. specified times when people are allowed to break norms
    • moral holiday
    • bachelor party, halloween
  48. locations wherer norms are expected to be broken
    • moral holiday places
    • las vegas mardi gras
  49. 3 types of norms with examples
    • folkway (eye contact, manners)
    • mores (connected with law)
    • taboos (rape, murder)
  50. norms that not strictly enforced
  51. norms that are believed to be essential to core values and we insist on conformity
  52. norms so strongly ingrained that the thought of them brings revulsion
  53. groups whose values and related behaviors are so distinct that they set their members off from the dominant culture -- doesn't disrupt main culture
    • subculture
    • scrubs are related to medical work
    • how people dress
  54. groups whose values set their members in oppositioons to the dominant culture -- challenges that dominant culture to some degree
    • counterculture
    • hippies in the 60s
    • tea part groups
  55. the process by which we learn the ways of our group
  56. inherited genetics, shaped by our genes --- out come is determined at conception
  57. learned and shaped by environment - products of things we are exposed to and while genetics have some play doesn't make the decisions
  58. process by which our self develops through our interpretations of other reactions to us
    • the looking glass self
    • unwanted child vs loved child
  59. understanding how someone else feels and thinks /// development of self // stressed the important of play in the development of self, interaction with other children to understand other people out there
    Take the role of the other
  60. Stages of taking the role of the other
    • imitation
    • play
    • games
  61. not born moral, its a four step process that some do not finish
    development of morality
  62. four stages of development of morality
    • amoral
    • preconventional
    • conventional
    • postconventional
  63. stage were there is not morality, knows nothing but their own personal need
    amoral stage
  64. stage in which child doesn't understand right and wrong but will follow rules to avoid getting into trouble
    preconventional stage
  65. stage child learns and understands the norms and values of society, understands right and wrong
    conventional stage
  66. a stage where a child or personcan reflect on the abstract principle of right and wrong / can judge outside of self, judge right from wrong
    postconvential stage
  67. 4 stages of cognitive skills
    • sensorimotor stage
    • preoperational stage
    • concrete operational stage
    • formal operation stage
  68. stage in which the development of motor skills and perceptual abilities
    sensorimotor stage
  69. stage in learning language
    preoperational stage
  70. stage in cause and effect
    concrete operational stage
  71. stage in capable of abstract thought
    Formal operation stage
  72. "rule of object permanence"
    sensorimotor stage
  73. "take the role of another"
    preoperational stage
  74. "rule of conservation"
    concrete operational stage
  75. "if...then" situations
    formal operation stage
  76. all normal human beings experiancec 6 basic emotions, but how we express them are based on several things (5):
    • gender
    • culture
    • social class
    • relationship
    • setting
  77. what are the 6 basic human emotions
    • anger
    • fear
    • sadness
    • surprise
    • disgust
    • happiness
  78. individuals and groups that influence our socialization process - we learn to behave, our attitudes, our emotions
    agents of socialization
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Sociology Exam 1
Exam 1
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