Intro to Biology

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. _______ are fundamental building blocks of all matter.
  2. The smallest unit of life is the ______.
  3. ______ is the transmission of DNA to offspring.
  4. A process by which an organism produces an offspring is called _______.
  5. Organisms require _______ and _______ to maintain themselves, grow, and reproduce.
    nutrients and energy
  6. _______ move around for at least part of their life.
  7. By sensing and responding to change, organisms keep conditions in the internal environment withing ranges that cells can tolerate.  This process is called _______.
  8. DNA

    a. guides functioning and development
    b. is the basis of traits
    c. is transmitted from parents to offspring
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  9. A butterfly is a(n) _______, _______, and _______
    organism, eukaryote, and consumer
  10. A bacterium is _______ and _______.
    an organism and single-celled
  11. Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya are three _______.
  12. A control group is _______.
    the standard against which an experimental group is compared
  13. Sciene addresses only that which is _______.
  14. Fifteen randomly selected students are found to be taller than 6 feet.  The researchers concluded that the average height of a student is greater than 6 feet.  This is an example of _______.
    sampling error
  15. What is the most suitable description for life?
    property that emerges at the level of the cell
  16. What is the most suitable description for probability?
    measure of chance
  17. What is the most suitable description for species?
    unique type of organism
  18. What is the most suitable description for scientific theory?
    time-tested hypothesis
  19. What is the most suitable description for prediction?
    statement of what you expect to see if the hypothesis is correct
  20. What is the most suitable description for producer?
    makes its own food
  21. The number of species on an island usually depends on the size of the island and its distance from a mainland.  This statement would most likely be made by _______.
    a biogeographer
  22. The bones of a bird's wing are similar to the bones in a bat's wing.  This observation is an example of _______.
    comparative morphology
  23. Evolution

    A. is natural selection
    B. can occur by natural selection
    C. b and c
    D. is heritable change in a line of descent
    C. b and c
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. A trait is adaptive if it _______.
    increases fitness
  25. In which type of rock are you more likely to find a fossil?
    limestone, composed of sedimented calcium carbonate
  26. Which of the following is a fossil?

    a. an inscet in 10-million-year-old tree sap
    b. a woolly mammoth frozen in permafrost
    c. mineral hardened remaisn of a whale-like animal
    d. an impression of a plant leaf in a rock
    e. all of the above
    e. all of the above
  27. If the half-life of a radioisotope is 20,000 years, then a sample in which three-quarters of that radioisotope has decayed is _______ years old.
  28. Did Pangea or Gondwana form first?
  29. The cretaceous ended _______ million years ago.
  30. Through _______, a body part of an ancestor is modified differently in different lines of descent.
    morphological divergence
  31. Homologous structures among major groups of organisms may differ in _______.
    shape, size, and function
  32. By altering the steps in the program by which embryos develop, a mutation in a _______ may lead to major differences in body form between related lineages.
    homeotic gene
  33. All of the following data types can be used as evidence of shared ancestry except similarities in ______.
    form due to convergence
  34. What is the most suitable description for fitness?
    measured by relative genetic contribution to future generations
  35. What is the most suitable description for fossils?
    evidence of life in distant past
  36. What is the most suitable description for natural selection?
    survival of the fittest
  37. What is the most suitable description for half-life?
    characteristic of a radioisotope
  38. What is the most suitable description for catastrophism?
    geological change occurs in sudden major events
  39. What is the most suitable description for uniformity?
    geological change occurs continuously
  40. What is the most suitable description for analogous structure?
    insect wing and bird wing
  41. What is the most suitable description for sedimentary rock?
    good for finding fossils
  42. What is the most suitable description for homologous structures?
    human arm and bird wing
  43. What is the most suitable description for neutral nutation?
    does not affect fitness
  44. _______ is the original source of new alleles.
  45. Individuals don't evolve; _______ do.
  46. Evolution can only occur when 

    A. mating is random
    B. neither is necessary
    C. there is selection pressure
    B. neither is necessary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. What is the most suitable description for stabilizing?
    eliminates extreme forms of a trait
  48. What is the most suitable description for directional natural selection?
    shifts allele frequencies in one direction
  49. What is the most suitable description for disruptive natural selection?
    eliminates mid range forms of a trait
  50. Sexual selection, such as competition between males for access to fertile females, frequently influences aspects of body form and can lead to _______.
    male and female differences, male aggression, and exaggerated traits
  51. The persistence of the sickle allele at high frequency in a population is a case of 

    A. inbreeding
    B. bottlenecking
    C. balanced polymorphism
    D. natural selection
    E. both b and d
    E. both b and d
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. _______ tends to keep different populations of a species similar to one another.
    gene flow
  53. The theory of natural selection does NOT explain

    a. genetic drift
    b. the founder effect
    c. gene flow
    d. how mutations arise
    e. inheritance
    all of them
  54. A fire devastates all tree in a wide swath of forest.  Populations of a species of tree-dwelling frog on either side of the burned area diverge to become separate species.  This is an example of _______.
    allopatric speciation
  55. Sex in many birds is typically preceded by an elaborate courtship dance.  If a male's movements are unrecognized by the female, she will not mate with him.  This is an example of _______.
    reproductive isolation, behavioral isolation, and sexual selection
  56. Cladistics

    a. is a way of reconstructing evolutionary history
    b. may involve parsimony analysis
    c. is based on derived traits
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  57. In cladistics, the only taxon that is always correct as a clade is the _______.
  58. In evolutionary trees, each node represents _______.
    point of divergence
  59. In cladograms, sister groups are ______.
    the same age
  60. What is gene flow?
    alleles enter and leave a population
  61. what is sexual selection?
    adaptive traits make their bearers better at securing mates
  62. what does extinct mean?
    no more living members
  63. what are changes in a population's allele selection frequencies due to chance alone?
    genetic drift
  64. what is a diagram of sets within sets?
  65. what is a burst of divergences from one lineage into many?
    adaptive radiation
  66. what can lead to interdependent species?
  67. what is evolutionary history?
  68. An increase in _______ in the atmosphere allowed the formation of an ozone layer that protects against UV radiation.
  69. Stanley Miller's experiment demonstrated...
    that amino acids can assemble under some conditions
  70. The evolution of a new type of _______ resulted in an increase in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere.
  71. Mitochondria are most likely descendants of _______.
    aerobic bacteria
  72. Bacteria transfer genes among themselves by _____.
  73. The first eukaryotes were _______.
  74. True or False?  Some protists are more related to plants than other protists.
  75. What protist group is most closely related to animals?
  76. The _______ are parasitic eukaryotes that live in other cells.
  77. Remains of _______ form chalk and limestone deposits.
  78. Some of the _______ are human pathogens.
    flagellated protozoans
  79. Plants descended from a lineage of _______ algae.
  80. Silica-rich remains of _______ are used as an insecticide.
  81. The genetic material of a _______ may be DNA or RNA.
  82. What is the closest relative to plants?
    green algae
  83. what is a noncellular infectious agent?
  84. what are the most diverse prokaryotes?
  85. what includes the largest protists?
    brown algae
  86. What is a resistant resting stage?
  87. what is a flagellate with chloroplasts?
  88. what is a protist population explosion?
    algal boom
  89. what is a whirling cell?
  90. what is a social amoeba?
    slime mold
  91. what is layered prokaryotes and sediment called?
  92. True or False?  Animal cells do not have walls.
  93. The colonial theory of animal origins states that...
    animals evolved from a colonial protist.
  94. A body cavity that is fully lined with tissue derived from mesoderm is a _______.
  95. Most _______ animal bodies have symmetry.
  96. Earthworms are most closely related to _______.
  97. The _______ have a cuticle and molt as they grow.
    roundworms and anthropods
  98. List the four distinguishing chordate traits?  Which of these traits are retained by an adult tunicate?
    Notochord, dorsal nerve cord, pharynx with gill slits, tail that extends beyond anus

    pharynx with gill slits
  99. True or false?  A shark's vertebral column is made of bone.
  100. All vertebrates are _______ but only some are _______.
    chordates; amniotes
  101. Amniote adaptations to land include...
    waterproof skin, internal fertilization, highly efficient kidneys, and specialized eggs
  102. True or false?  Australopiths belong to the species homo.
  103. Birds and placental mammals...
    have a four chambered heart.
  104. what has no true tissues and no organs?
  105. what has specialized stinging cells?
  106. what has a saclike gut and no coelom?
  107. what are unsegmented, molting worms?
  108. what are segmented worms?
  109. what has a jointed exoskeleton?
  110. what has a mantle over body mass?
  111. what has tube feet and spiny skin?
  112. what were the first terrestrial tetrapods?
  113. what are the most diverse vertebrates?
  114. what lays amniote eggs?
  115. arrange these events in order from ancient to most recent:

    extinction of dinosaurs
    first jawed vertebrates evolve
    origin of animals
    cambrian explosion of diversity
    tetrapods move onto land
    homo erectus leaves africa
    • origin of animals
    • cambrian explosion of diversity
    • first jawed vertebrates evolve
    • tetrapods move onto the land
    • extinction of dinosaurs
    • homo erectus leaves africa
  116. Which of the following statements is correct?

    A. isotopes have the same atomic number and different mass numbers
    B. atoms have about the same number of electrons as protons
    C. free radicals are dangerous because they emit energy
    D. a carbon atom can share electrons with up to 4 other atoms
    C. free radicals are dangerous because they emit energy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. what is the name of an atom that has one proton and no electrons?
    hydrogen ion
  118. the mutual attraction of opposite charges holds atoms together as molecules in a _______ bond.
  119. Rank the following types of bonds by polarity from 1-3:
    ionic bond
    nonpolar bond
    polar bond
    • 1 non polar bond
    • 2 polar bond
    • 3 ionic bond
  120. A _______ substance repels water.
  121. When dissolved in water, a _______ donates H+ and a _______ accepts H+.
    acid; base
  122. _______ is a simbple sugar (a monosaccharide).
    glucose, sucrose, and ribose
  123. Unlike saturated fats, the fatty acid tails of unsaturated fats incorporate one or more _______.
    double bonds
  124. What is a class of molecules that encompasses all of the other molecules?
  125. _______ are to proteins as _______ are to nucleic acids.
    amino acids; nucleotides
  126. A denatured protein has lost its _______.
    hydrogen bonds, shape, and function
  127. Which of the following are not found in DNA?

    amino acids
    phosphate groups
    amino acids
  128. What does hydrophilic mean?
    polar and dissolves easily in water
  129. What does the atomic number tell you?
    the number of protons in the nucleus
  130. Are hydrogens strong or weak?
    collectively strong
  131. more protons mean what?
    positive charge
  132. what does temperature refer to?
    a measurement of molecular movement
  133. more electrons mean what?
    negative charge
  134. what are water-repellent secretions?
  135. what is sugar storage in plants?
  136. what is the richest energy source in animals?
  137. what carries heritable information?
  138. what is a protein primary structure?
  139. what is ATP?
    an energy carrier
  140. What are the components of proteins?
    amino acid monomers
  141. What are the components of phospholipids?
    glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate
  142. What are the components of fats?
    glycerol and fatty acids
  143. What are the components of nucleic acid?
    nucleotide monomers
  144. What are the components of cellulose?
    glucose monomers
  145. What are the components of nucleotides?
    sugar, phosphate, and base
  146. What are the components of wax?
    fatty acids and carbon rings
  147. What are the components of sucrose?
    glucose and fructose
  148. _______ is life's primary source of energy.
  149. which of the following statements is not correct?

    energy cannot be created or destroyed
    energy cannot change from one form to another
    energy tends to disperse spontaneously.
    energy cannot change from one form to another
  150. If we liken a chemical reaction to an energy hill, then an _______ reaction is an uphill run.
    energy-requiring and ATP assisted
  151. _______ are always changed by participating in a reaction.
  152. Enzymes

    A. are proteins, except from a few RNAs
    B. lower the activation energy of a reaction
    C. a and b
    D. are changed by participating in a reaction
    C. a and b
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  153. One environmental factor that influences enzyme function is _______.
  154. A metabolic pathway....
    may build or break down molecules, generates heat, and can include an electron transfer chain
  155. True or false?  Glucose can diffuse through a lipid bilayer.
  156. Ions or molecules tend to diffuse from a region where they are(more/less) concentrated to another where they are (more/less) concentrated.
    more; less
  157. _______ cannot easily diffuse across a lipid bilayer.
  158. transporters that require an energy boost help sodium ions across a cell membrane.  This is a case of _______.
    active transport
  159. If you immerse a red blood cell in a hypotonic solution, water will _____________.
    diffuse into the cell
  160. fluid pressure against a wall or cell membrane is called _______.
  161. vesicles form in _______ and _______.
    endocytosis and phagocytosis
  162. What enters a reaction?
    a reactant
  163. What happens in phagocytosis?
    one cell engulfs another
  164. what is the first law of thermodynamics?
    energy cannot be created or destroyed
  165. what forms at a reaction's end?
    a product
  166. what assists some enzymes?
    a cofactor
  167. what is faster with a gradient?
  168. what does not require an energy boost?
    passive transport
  169. what is like currency in an energy economy?
    active transport
  170. what requires an energy boost?
  171. In a land plant, most of the carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis comes from ______.
    the atmosphere
  172. __________ is the main energy source that drives photosynthesis.
  173. In the light-dependent reactions...
    ATP forms
  174. When a photosystem absorbs light...
    it ejects electrons
  175. The atoms in the oxygen molecules released during photosynthesis come from _______.
  176. True or false?  Plants make all of their ATP by photosynthesis.
  177. After photosynthesis evolved, its byproduct, _______, accumulated and changed the atmosphere
  178. Glycolysis starts and ends in the _______.
  179. The Calvin-Benson cycle starts when _______.
    electrons leave a photosystem
  180. In eukaryotes, aerobic respiration is completed in the _______.
  181. In eukaryotes, aerobic fermentation is completed in the _______.
  182. In the third stage of aerobic respiration, _______ is the final acceptor of electrons.
  183. Which of the following is not produced
    by an animal muscle cell operating under anaerobic conditions?

    heat, lactate, ATP, NAD+, pyruvate
    All are produced
  184. Hydrogen ion flow drives ATP formation during _______.
    photosynthesis and aerobic respiration
  185. Your body cells can use _______ as an alternative energy source when glucose is in short supply.
    fatty acids, glycerol, or amino acids
  186. What is the product of glycosis?
  187. Is oxygen required for fermentation?
  188. Where does aerobic respiration end?
  189. What is like an antenna?
  190. What is big in the atmosphere?
    carbon dioxide
  191. what is a carbon-fixing enzyme called?
  192. What is the site of photosynthesis?
  193. Despite the diversity of cell type and function, all cells have these three things in common:
    cytoplasm, DNA and a plasma membrane
  194. Every cell is descended from another cell.  This idea is part of _______.
    the cell theory
  195. The surface-to-volume ratio...
    constrains cell size
  196. True or false?  Some protists start out life with no nucleus.
  197. Unlike eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells _______.
    have no nucleus
  198. Cell membranes consist mainly of ______ and _______.
    phospholipids; proteins
  199. Most membrane functions are carried out by _______.
  200. True or false? Only eukaryotic cells have mitochondria.
  201. In a lipid bilayer, the _______ of all the lipid molecules are sandwiched between all of the _______.
    hydrophobic tails; hydrophilic heads
  202. The main function of the endomembrane system is...
    building and modifying proteins and lipids.
  203. Enzymes contained in _______ break down worn-out organelles, bacteria, and other particles.
  204. Put the following structures in order according to the pathway of a secreted protein:

    golgi bodies
    plasma membrane
    endoplasmic reticulum
    post-golgi vesicles
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • golgi bodies
    • plasma membrane
    • post-golgi vesicles
  205. No animal cell has a _______.
    cell wall
  206. _______ connect the cytoplasm of plant cells.
  207. What is the function of mitochondrion?
    ATP Production
  208. What is the function of chloroplast?
  209. What is the function of ribosome?
    protein synthesis
  210. What is the function of nucleus?
    protects DNA
  211. What is the function of cell junction?
    connects cells
  212. What is the function of flagellum?
  213. What is the function of cell membrane?
    maintains internal environment
  214. What is the function of cuticle?
    protective covering
  215. Mitosis and cytoplasmic division function in _______.
    asexual reproduction of single-celled eukaryotes and growth and tissue repair in multicelled species
  216. A cell with two of each type of chromosome has a(n) _______ chromosome number.
  217. How many chromatids does a duplicated chromosome have?
  218. _______ maintains the chromosome number; _______ halves it.
    mitosis; meiosis
  219. Except for a pairing of sex chromosomes, homologous chromosomes _______.
    carry the same genes, are the same shape and length
  220. Interphase is the part of the cell cycle when...
    a cell grows and duplicates its DNA
  221. After mitosis, the chromosome number of the two new cells is _______  the parent cell's.
    the same as
  222. The main evolutionary advantage of sexual over asexual reproduction is that it produces _______.
  223. Meiosis functions in _______.
    sexual reproduction in plants and animals.
  224. Crossing over mixes up _______.
  225. Sexual reproduction in animals requires _______.
    meiosis and fertilization
  226. what happens during prophase?
    chromosomes start to condense
  227. what happens during metaphase?
    all chromosomes are aligned in the middle of the cell
  228. what happens during anaphase?
    sister chromatids move apart
  229. what happens during telophase?
    new nuclei form
  230. what does a cell plate do?
    divides plant cells
  231. what is a spindle made of?
  232. what is a tumor?
    a lump of abnormal cells
  233. what is cleavage furrow?
  234. what is a contractile ring made of?
  235. what is cancer?
    migrating, metastatic cells
  236. what does a centriole pair do?
    produces the spindle
  237. what is a gamete?
  238. what is a zygote?
    the first cell of a new individual
  239. a _______ produces both eggs and sperm.
  240. the end product of cleavage is a _______.
  241. A _______ is a hollow ball of cells that undergo gastrulation.
  242. Meiotic divisions of germ cells in the _______ give rise to sperm.
    seminiferous tubules
  243. A male has an erection when...
    spongy tissues inside the penis fill with blood
  244. In humans, fertilization usually occurs in ______.
    an oviduct
  245. During a menstrual cycle, a midcycle surge of _______ secreted by the pituitary triggers ovulation.
  246. after ovulation, the corpus luteum secretes _______.
  247. a _______ implants in the lining of the human uterus.
  248. Put these events in order:

    blastocyst forms
    zygote forms
    tail disappears
    neural tube forms
    heart begins beating
    • zygote forms
    • blastocyst forms
    • gastrulation
    • neural tube forms
    • heart begins beating
    • tail disappears
  249. What STDs are caused by bacteria?
    chlamydia and gonnorhea
  250. human milk contains...
    antibodies, lactose, and easily digested fats and proteins.
  251. During labor, secretion of oxytocin stimulates _______.
    uterine contractions
  252. what does the testis do?
    produces testosterone
  253. what does vas deferens do?
    conveys sperm toward urethra
  254. what is placenta?
    maternal and fetal tissues
  255. what is the vagina?
    birth canal
  256. what does an ovary do?
    produces estrogen and progesterone
  257. what does an oviduct do?
    conveys egg to uterus
  258. what does the prostate gland do?
    adds fluid to sperm in semen
  259. what does the mammary gland do?
    secretes milk
  260. The arrival of pollen grains on a receptive stigma is called _______.
  261. A pollinator may receive _______ when
    it visits a flower of a coevolved plant.
    pollen, nectar, or pesticides
  262. The _______ of a flower contains one
    or more ovaries in which eggs develop, fertilization occurs, and seeds mature.
  263. In plants, the structures that produce male gametophytes are called_______ ; those that produce female gametophytes are called_______ .
    stamens; carpels
  264. seeds are mature ____; fruits are mature _____.
    ovules; ovaries
  265. Cotyledons develop as part of _______.
    embryo sporophytes
  266. In some species, exposure to _______ is a trigger for seed germination.
    light, cold, or smoke
  267. The three main parts of a mature eudicot seed are...
    embryo, cotyledons, and seed coat
  268. A new plant forms from a stem that broke off of the parent plant and fell to the ground. This is an example of _______.
    asexual reproduction
  269. Banana plants produce seedless fruit because they are _______.
  270. Plant hormones...
    • often have multiple, overlapping effects, are
    • active in developing plant embryos, are
    • active in adult plants
  271. In some plants, flowering is a _______ response.
  272. True or false? Abscisic acid promotes water loss and dormancy.
  273. what triggers phototropism?
    blue light
  274. what triggers gravitropism?
  275. what triggers thigmotropism?
    mechanical stimulation
  276. what triggers vernalization?
    a long period of cold
  277. what triggers photoperiodism?
    night length
  278. chromosome number...
    is an identifiable feature of a species
  279. Human body cells are diploid, which means...
    they have two sets of chromosomes.
  280. The _______ is genetic information.
    sequence of DNA
  281. One species DNA differs from others in its ________.
    DNA sequence
  282. When DNA replication begins...
    the two DNA strands unwind from each other.
  283. DNA replication requires...
    template DNA, nucleotides, and primers
  284. All mutations...
    change the DNA sequence
  285. Exposure to _______ can lead to mutations.
    UV light, cigarette smoke, or x-rays
  286. _______ is an example of reproductive cloning
    SCNT or artificial embryo splitting
  287. what is a nucleotide?
    monomer of DNA
  288. what is a clone?
    copy of an organism
  289. what is an autosome?
    chromosome that does not determine sex in humans
  290. what is DNA polymerase?
    replication enzyme
  291. what can mutation cause?
  292. what is semiconservative replication?
    one old, one new
  293. A chromosome contains many genes that are transcribed into different _______.
  294. RNAs form by _______; proteins form by _______.
    transcription; translation
  295. The main function of a DNA molecule is to _______.
    store heritable information
  296. the main function of an mRNA molecule is to _______.
    carry DNA's genetic message for translation
  297. Where does transcription take place in a eukaryotic cell?
  298. Translation takes place in the _______ of all cells.
  299. Up to how many amino acids can be encoded by a gene that consists of 45 nucleotides plus a stop codon?
  300. Most codons specify a _______.
    amino acid
  301. _______ are mutations.
    base-pair substitutions, insertions, and deletions.
  302. Homeotic gene products...
    control the formation of specific body parts.
  303. A gene that is knocked out is...
    either deleted or inactivated.
  304. A cell with a Barr body is ...
    from a female mammal.
  305. True or false?  Some gene expression patterns are heritable.
  306. put these processes in order of occurence during expression of a eukaryotic gene:

    mRNA processing
    RNA leaves nucleus
    • translation
    • RNA leaves nucleus
    • mRNA processing
    • transcription
Card Set:
Intro to Biology
2014-02-07 20:54:39
Intro Biology
Intro to Biology
Intro to Biology
Show Answers: