IPHY Class

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IPHY Class
2014-02-06 20:52:39


Exam #1
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  1. Organelles
    • Structures within cells that perform specialized functions. 
    • Include nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes
  2. Tissues
    Collection of similar cells that perform specialized functions
  3. Epithelial Tissue
    Cells that form linings and coverings (skin)
  4. Connective Tissue
    Cells that hold together, protect, and support organs
  5. Lymphatic System
    • Helps maintain fluid balance, absorb many fat-soluble nutrients and defend the body against diseases
    • Store white blood cells
  6. Endocrine System
    • Organs and tissues that produce hormones
    • Give male/female traits
  7. Integumentary System
    Comprised of skin, hair, and nails
  8. GI Tract
    Muscular tube that extends from mouth to anus
  9. Bioavailability
    • Extent to which digestive tract absorbs nutrients and how well the body uses them
    • Increase in fiber, decrease in _______
  10. Mechanical Digestion
    Biting and grinding actions break and mash foods into smaller pieces
  11. Chemical Digestion
    Saliva mixes and lubricates food
  12. Small Intestine
    • Where most nutrients are digested & absorbed
    • Small in diameter
  13. Large Intestine
    • Two major sections: Colon and Rectum
    • Absorption of water and minerals occur
    • Large in diameter
  14. Liver
    • Processes and stores many nutrients
    • Makes cholesterol and bile
  15. Gallbaldder
    Stores bile that aids in fat digestion
  16. Pancreas
    Produces and secretes many digestive enzymes and biocarbonate ions
  17. Feces
    Form as chyme becomes semisolid
  18. Rectum
    Lower part of large intestine where feces are stored
  19. Crohn's Disease
    • Most cases occur in the small intestine
    • Flare up/remission
    • Lesions deep into intestinal tissue that causes scarring
  20. Ulcerative Colitis
    • Large intestine - nut losses/bleeding/diarrhea
    • Active period: remission
  21. Structural Proteins
    In cartilage, ligaments, bones, hair, skin, and nails
  22. Contractile Proteins
    Enable muscles to move
  23. Pigment Proteins
    Determine color of eyes, hair, and skin
  24. Clotting Proteins
    Needed for blood clotting
  25. Proteins aid in fluid balance
    Oxygen and many nutrients are transported in blood by special proteins
    Functions of Proteins
  26. Amino Acids
    Can't be made by the body(Eaten by food)
  27. Legumes
    Plants that produce pods with a single row of seeds (Soybeans, peas, peanuts, lentils, and beans)
  28. Peptides
    Chains of <15 amino acids
  29. Polypeptides
    Proteins made of >50 amino acids
  30. Protein Digestion
    • Digestion begins in the stomach
    • Uses 4 chemicals
  31. Lactovegetarian
    • Consumes milk and milk products
    • Get complete proteins
  32. Lactoovergeterain
    Consumes eggs, milk, and milk products
  33. Kwashiorkor
    • Adequate energy intake but intake of high quality is low
    • What 1st baby gets when 2nd baby comes along(1st baby doesn't get breastmilk)
    • Forgotten to digest food, need to do protein therapy 
    • Fluid imbalance
  34. Marasmus
    Starvation and extreme weight loss
  35. Carbohydrated
    • Major source of energy
    • Made by plants from CO2 and H2O using energy from the sun
    • Often identified by chemical name ending in -ose
  36. Sucrose
    • Table sugar
    • Made from sugar cane or sugar beets
  37. Alternative Sweeteners
    • Substances added to a food to sweeten it but provide no or few calories
    • Body doesn't respond in a diabetic reaction
  38. Starch
    • Storage form of carbohydrate in plants
    • Mainly in seeds, roots and tubers
  39. Glycogen
    • Storage form of carbohydrate in humans and other animals
    • Stored primarily in liver and muscles
  40. Fiber
    • Complex carbohydrates that the human body cannot digest
    • Good for your body
  41. How Fiber Works
    • Scouring, bulk, and absorption
    • Scouring - take cancer cells out of body
    • Act as big sponge, not eating much calories but tells it's full
  42. Ketone Bodies
    • Form as a result of incomplete fat breakdown
    • Poorly controlled diabetes
    • Fasting or starving
  43. Ketosis
    • Condition that occurs with very high blood ketone bodies
    • Unconsciousness and death may occur
  44. Hypoglycemia
    • Abnormally low blood glucose levels
    • Occurs to everyone for shot time, but long term is rare
  45. Type I Diabetes
    • Autoimmune disease (body attacking itself)
    • Beta cells stop making insulin
    • Lack of insulin, will go into diabetic coma
    • Genetic
  46. Type II Diabetes
    • Most common type
    • Insulin resistant cells
    • Completely avoidable
  47. Lipids
    • Fatty acids
    • Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Cholesterol
    • They are insoluble in water
  48. Cholesterol
    • Compound that is more complex than most other lipids
    • Awesome, unless there are too much of it
  49. Functions of Cholesterol
    Make various substances: Vitamin D, Steroids hormones, Bile
  50. Saturated
    • Clog arteries
    • Mostly found in meat
  51. Trans Fats
    • Used in many processed foods
    • Raises blood cholesterol levels
  52. Omega 3
    • Reduces chronic inflammation, blood clotting, and blood pressure
    • May reduce risk of heart disease
    • Found in fatty fish, canola oil, walnuts, and flaxseed
  53. Omega 6
    • Increases inflammation and blood clotting 
    • Found in animal fats and vegetable oils
  54. Liproproteins
    • Transport lipids in the blood
    • Play major role in atherosclerosis development
  55. High-density Lipoproteins (HDL)
    • "Good" cholesterol
    • Transport cholesterol away from tissue and to the liver where it can be eliminated
  56. Low Density Lipoproteins (LDP)
    • "Bad" cholesterol
    • Conveys cholesterol to tissues
    • More prone to heart attacks and stroke
  57. Hydrogenation
    • "Chunk of saturated fat"
    • More stable, but not healthy
  58. Bile
    • Break down fat
    • Helps brain function
    • Made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
    • Contains bile salts that aid in lipid digestion
    • Without it, lipids clump together in large fat globules
  59. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
    • Diseased of the heart and blood vessels
    • 1/3 adult Americans have some form
  60. Atheroscierosis
    Disease in which lipid-containing plaques build up inside arteries
  61. Plaque
    • Forms in an artery when something irritates the lining of the artery wall
    • Reduce by: Exercise, Omega 3, HDL, increase fiber
  62. Thrombus
    Fixed clot
  63. Arteroiosclerosis
    • Characterized by loss of arterial flexibility
    • Occurs after Atherosclerosis
    • Commonly referred to as hardening of the arteries
  64. Embolus Formation
    • A thrombus that breaks away and travels through the blood
    • If it lodges in the heart, it can cause heart attack
    • If it lodges in the brain and deprives brain cells of oxygen and nutrient, it can cause a stsroke