Thinking and Language and Stuff

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  1. Concept
    a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
  2. Hierarchies
    categorized concepts
  3. Prototypes
    • a mental image or best example of a category
    • matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories
  4. Algorithm
    a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
  5. Heuristic
    • a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solves problems efficiently
    • speedier, but more error-prone than algorithms
  6. Insight
    • a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problems
    • contrasts with strategy-based solutions
  7. Confirmation Bias
    a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
  8. Fixation
    the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
  9. Mental Set
    a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
  10. Functional Fixedness
    the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
  11. Representativeness Heuristic
    • judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
    • may lead us to ignore other relevant information
  12. Availability Heuristic
    estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
  13. Overconfidence
    that tendency to be more confident than correct -- to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
  14. Belief Perserverence
    clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
  15. Intuition
    an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
  16. Framing
    • the way an issue is posed
    • how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
  17. Language
    our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
  18. Phonemes
    • in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
    • In "bat", the phonemes are 'b', 'a', and 't'
  19. Morphemes
    • in language, the smallest unit that carries meaning
    • may be a word or part of a word
  20. Grammar
    in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
  21. Semantics
    • the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
    • Ex: Adding -ed to "laugh" means it happened in the past
  22. Syntax
    • the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
    • Ex: One English syntax says that adjectives come before nouns, so we say "white house"
  23. Babbling Stage
    beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
  24. One-Word Stage
    the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
  25. Two-Word Stage
    beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word sentences
  26. Telegraphic Speech
    early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs
  27. Skinner
    Language and Operant Conditioning
  28. Chomsky
    • universal grammar
    • language acquisition device
  29. Aphasia
    impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
  30. Broca's Area
    controls language expression -- an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
  31. Wernicke's Area
    controls language reception -- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression, usually in the left temporal lobe
  32. Receptive Aphasia (fluent)
    • related to input, or reception of language
    • speech is easy, fluent
  33. Expressive Aphasia (non-fluent)
    • good auditory comprehension
    • difficulties in articulating
  34. Pure Aphasia
    • selective impairments
    • may affect reading, writing, recognition of words
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Thinking and Language and Stuff
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