genetics translation

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genetics translation
2014-02-06 22:33:08

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  1. what is necessary for translation to occur?
    only with ribosomes and tRNA
  2. what is the anticodon in tRNA complementary to?
    triplet codon sequence in mRNA
  3. what can the nucleotide base inosinic bond with?
    U, C, A
  4. what charges tRNA with amino acid?
    aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, at least 20 different synthetases for each amino acid
  5. what are the terms for initiation, elongation and termination cofactors
    IF, EL, RF
  6. what is the role of initiation factors?
    stabilizes the 30 S subunit, binds f-met tRNA, and mRNA
  7. what is the role of elongation and termination factors?
    • EL: bring aminoacyl-tRNA to A site
    • RF: release of polypeptide chain from tRNA, dissociation of complex
  8. what is the role of peptidyl transferase
    make peptide bonds between charged tRNAs
  9. what is the translation error rate?
  10. how does termination happen in translation?
    when GTP dependent release factors cleave the polypeptide from the terminal tRNA bound to the ribosome
  11. what happens in sickle cell anemia
    Beta chain of hemoglobin are altered due to a single amino acid change
  12. Creutzfeld-Jakob disease?
    mutation alter major prion protein, triggering misfolding and prion formation
  13. what are some post-translational modifications?
    • n-terminus amino acid is acetylated and Met is removedĀ 
    • modification of amino acid to prevent charged interactions with other molecules
    • addition of carbohydrate side chains
    • trimming of polypeptide chains
    • removal of signal sequences
    • addition of metal atoms