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what is necessary for translation to occur?
only with ribosomes and tRNA
what is the anticodon in tRNA complementary to?
triplet codon sequence in mRNA
what can the nucleotide base inosinic bond with?
U, C, A
what charges tRNA with amino acid?
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, at least 20 different synthetases for each amino acid
what are the terms for initiation, elongation and termination cofactors
IF, EL, RF
what is the role of initiation factors?
stabilizes the 30 S subunit, binds f-met tRNA, and mRNA
what is the role of elongation and termination factors?
- EL: bring aminoacyl-tRNA to A site
- RF: release of polypeptide chain from tRNA, dissociation of complex
what is the role of peptidyl transferase
make peptide bonds between charged tRNAs
what is the translation error rate?
how does termination happen in translation?
when GTP dependent release factors cleave the polypeptide from the terminal tRNA bound to the ribosome
what happens in sickle cell anemia
Beta chain of hemoglobin are altered due to a single amino acid change
mutation alter major prion protein, triggering misfolding and prion formation
what are some post-translational modifications?
- n-terminus amino acid is acetylated and Met is removed
- modification of amino acid to prevent charged interactions with other molecules
- addition of carbohydrate side chains
- trimming of polypeptide chains
- removal of signal sequences
- addition of metal atoms