BIO 111 Test 1

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BIO 111 Test 1
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2014-02-06 22:48:37
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Organisms
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Organisms
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  1. What is mass extinction?
    Loss of many species due to climate change or other factors.
  2. What is the Carboniferous period?
    Time of dominate by forests that are now our fossil fuel
  3. What are Domain Bacteria?
    Species that have 70S ribosomes
  4. What is Coltridium botulinum/ or what is Lox GC grams positive prokaryotes?
    Obligate anaerobe that produces endospores
  5. What is Phylum Acrasiomycota (slime molds)?
    Phylum that colonizes as a mass with membranes between nuclei and move as a slug
  6. What is Anabeana (cyanobacteria)?
    Organism the is know to have heterocysts, cells capable of nitrogen fixation
  7. What are Foraminifera or Radiolaria?
    Phylum of organisms is know for it filipoda and shells
  8. What is Clade Amoeba?
    Clade of organisms move and feed by pseudopodia.
  9. What is Yersinia Pestis?
    Cause the death of millions in 1300's and its vector is a flea
  10. What is Rhizobium?
    a symbiont with a pea plant
  11. What is Thermus aquatics/ to Creanarcheotas?
    Thermophiles that live in hot springs
  12. What is Phylum Dinophyta?
    Phylum that produces neurotoxins and made up a large part o the phytoplankton
  13. What is Zooxanthellae?
    Dionflagellate
  14. What is the pellicle?
    organelle give structural support to Phylum Euglenophyta
  15. What is isomorphic alternation of generations?
    Alteration of generations were both sporophyte and gametphyte look the same
  16. What is bioluminescence?
    A reaction of phytoplankton to disturbance
  17. What is the gametangia?
    a bryophyte innovation to protect gametes
  18. What is sporophyte?
    Stomata first developed on bryophytes
  19. What is a cuticle?
    Innovation protects the plant from desiccation ultraviolet radiation and fungal infection
  20. What is a gemmae?
    Used for vegetive reproduction in liverworts and found in cups
  21. What is peristome?
    Part of capsule sensitive to humidity; opens up to release spores.
  22. What are bryophytes?
    The group that gave rise to tracheophtyes
  23. What is lignin?
    Tracheophyte innovation within the vascular tissue
  24. What are microphylls?
    The leaf type is typical of lycophytes
  25. What are ophioglossalean ferns?
    Fern group has two different leaf segments
  26. What are lycopsids and monilophytes?
    The group that dominated in the carboniferous
  27. What is a seed coat?
    Gymnosperms developed a protective layer around the seed
  28. What is a pollen grain?
    structure allowed for the independent movement of the microgametes to the megagametes across hostile territory
  29. What is a serotinous cone?
    type of cone that adapted to fire
  30. What is an aril?
    structure of the taxaceae was adapted after seed dispersal
  31. What is Gnetophtye?
    A group that shares several characteristics with the angiosperms
  32. What is cytokinin?
    The antagonist to auxin
  33. What is auxin?
    responsible for stem elongation in response to light
  34. What is abscissic acid?
    plant growth regulator
  35. What is double fertilization?
    necessary for the development of the embryo and nucellus
  36. What is a megagametophtye?
    plant equal of an animal egg
  37. What is the casparian strip?
    major barrier to movement into roots
  38. What is CAM?
    the main photosynthesis in desert plants
  39. What is modified leaf?
    cup like structure that captures insects
  40. What is a monocot?
    Group typically has scattered vascular bundles
  41. What is a periderm?
    Portion of secondary growth that is sloughed like a fingernail
  42. What are the four over lapping stages that potentially led to the origin of life?
    • 1. Nucleotides and amino acids produced prior to the existence of cells
    • 2. Nucleotides and amino acids became polymerized to form DNA, RNA and proteins.
    • 3. Polymers enclosed in membranes 
    • 4. Polymers enclosed in membranes acquired cellular properties.
  43. Explain the reducing atmosphere hypothesis
    Oxidation is prevented by the removal of oxygen another oxidizing gasses leaving only hydrogen and carbon monoxide
  44. What is the difference between a coacervate and a liposome?
    A coacervate is simply a liposome with enzymes in the lipid bilayer and the inside
  45. What is meant by multicelularity?
    Organisms that cosnist of more than one cell
  46. Explain Endosymbiosis?
    When one organism lives inside the other (mitochondria and chloroplast)
  47. What can lead to evolution?
    • -New genetic variation in a population 
    • -non-random mating
    • -Migration between pop.
    • -Genetic drifts 
    • -Natural Selection
  48. What is the difference between a homologous and analogous structure?
    • Homologous derived form the same ancestor but have diverged into different uses and designs. 
    • Analogous structures have different organisms but have evolved to do the same job
  49. What is vicariance?
    The geographical separation of a population, physical barrier like a mountain range or river
  50. Id genetic drift faster in smaller of larger population?
    Faster in smaller populations
  51. How does variation, heredity, and reproductive success lead to natural selection?
    Variation allows differences, heredity allow individuals to pass on characteristics and reproductive success allows certain characteristics to survive and reproduce better
  52. What is disruptive selection?
    Ex. Mice that differ in color form white withe to dark borne----- the white and dark brown survive. (graph has two humps)
  53. What is Directional Selection?
    Ex. Mice the brown to darkest brown mice survive
  54. What is Stabilizing selection?
    Ex. Mice the brown (middle color) mouse survives
  55. What is anagenesis?
    a single species is evolved into a different species
  56. What is cladogenesis?
    Species diverges into two or more species
  57. What is reproductive isolation?
    Behaviors or physiological processes that prevent the members of two different species that mate from producing offspring
  58. What is allopatric speciation?
    geographic isolation leads to divergence
  59. What is Sympatric Speciation?
    A new species evolves within in the ancestral species
  60. When are adaptive radiation most common?
    When there is abundant resources and founder events
  61. What is a Phylogenies?
    They are built based o the presence of shared characters
  62. What is plesiomorphy?
    a character inherited from a distant ancestor
  63. What is an apomorphy?
    A recently derived character of a lineage
  64. Details of Gram Positive
    Stain is blue or purple, only a single cells wall
  65. Details of gram negative
    Red or pink, has lipopolysaccharides
  66. How do bacteria and archaea reproduce?
    Binary fission
  67. Ecological Importance of bacteria or archaea
    Decomposition of organic material, cycling of major material, interaction with other host-pathogen. soil formation and degradation of waste
  68. What so the bacteria Clostridium botulimun affect?
    Toxin affects muscle contraction
  69. What does Yersinia pestis affect?
    Infects rodents, tranferred to humans by fleas. It is gram negative
  70. What does Staphylococcus aureus affect?
    Infects wounds, common in respiratory tract an on skin. It is gram positive
  71. What does streptomycin affect?
    Common soil bacterium, perhaps the oldest living organism on earth
  72. What does Anabaena affect?
    Indicator of water pollution, and capable of N2 fixation
  73. What does Rhizobium do?
    Soil inhabiting Gram negative, member of bean family. important for crop rotation
  74. What is Agrobacterium tumefaciens?
    Tumor making , infect plant wounds
  75. What are Euryarchaeota?
    Methanogens and extreme halophiles
  76. What are Crenarchaeota?
    Hot, acidic environments, but also most abundant in marine environments
  77. What are Koarcheota?
    not common, high temps hydothermal environments
  78. What are Nanoarcheota?
    Cannot synthesize lipids
  79. What are Thaumarcheots?
    Chemolithoautotrophic amino oxidizers
  80. Example of Protists?
    Algae, Protozoa and fungus
  81. What is Autotrophic?
    Photosynthesis-plants and algae
  82. What is Heterotrophi?
    Food is taken i by engulfing it-Animals
  83. What are the three modes of mobility?
    Free floating, Sessile(fixed in one place) and Motile(flagella, pseudopodia)

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