MicroLab Week1&2

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  1. Aseptic
    Free from germs or microorganisms and their toxins.

    Aseptically treat using the inner flame or "inner cone" because it is the hottest part of the flame.
  2. To incubate..
    Make sure incubate at 37 degrees celsius/Body temperature
  3. Streaking
    A process that dilutes out and separates cells on a plate.
  4. Heat Fixing
    • Fixes cells to the glass slide
    • Kills the cells to prevent contamination

    To coagulate cytoplasmic proteins
  5. Why we need contrast in lab
    So the specimen can be visible of the microscope field
  6. Basic
    High on the pH scale

    Alkaline, "not easy"
  7. 4 Basic Dyes
    • Crystal Violet
    • Methylene Blue
    • Safranin (red)
    • Malachite Green

    Basic Dyes are + charged to stain - charged cells
  8. What is Dye/Stain
    Solvent (Water or Ethanol)
  9. Chromogen
    Is the colored molecule of the dye/stain

    Two parts: Chromophore & Auxochrome
  10. Chromophore
    Molecules that gives color to the dye
  11. Auxochrome
    • Group of atoms attached to chromophore
    • The + charged portion of the chromogen
  12. Morphology
    The study of shape/structure of organisms
  13. Another word for spherical

    (pl. cocci)
  14. Another terms for "rod like"

    (pl. bacilli)
  15. Another term for Spirals

    (pl. spirilla)
  16. Strepto-
    Referred to as "chain-like"

    ex. Streptococcus
  17. Staphylo-
    Refers to clusters or bunches

    ex. staphylococcus
  18. The Gram Stain
    • A very important ID procedure used in microbiology
    • Founded by Hans Christian Gram in 1884

    2 Types: Gram Neg and Gram Pos
  19. Gram Positive Bacteria
    Cell wall has a thick peptidoglycan layer. 

    (Staphylococcus Epidermis/ Purple)
  20. Gram Negative Bacteria
    • Cell wall has a thinner peptidoglycan layer
    • Also contains higher lipid content 

    (Citrobacter freundii / Pink cells)
  21. Why is iodine used in gram stains?
    Used in gram stains as a reagent to bind with the CV creating a CV-I complex.

    Making the the the complex insoluble and produces much larger particles.
  22. Acetone/Alcohol
    Used in gram staining to stain from gram negative cells
  23. Peptidoglycan Layer
    Found in cell walls of bacteria.
  24. What stops gram positive cells from decolorization?
    The acetone used in decolorization shrinks and  dehydrates peptidoglycan layer. Trapping the CV-I complex.
  25. Why do gram neg cells decolorize with acetone?
    Because acetone destroys outer lipid layer, shrinks and dehydrates peptidoglycan layer but leaves large pores for dye to escape.
  26. Factors that effect gram slides
    • Age- Only young cultures should be used (18-24 hrs)
    • 48 hours + is old 
    • Acidic Cultures- Damages cell walls, CV wont stain well, Media must be sugar free)
  27. 4 acidic dyes
    • Nigrosin (Black)
    • Congo Red
    • Eosin (Red)
    • India Ink (black)
    • Acidic Dyes are - charged so the - charged cell repels the ink.
  28. Why use negative stains
    • Negative stains are used when the cell is too sensitive to be heat fixed.
    • Acidic/negative stains reduce cell shrinkage
  29. General Characteristics of Fungi
    • Eukaryotic 
    • Nonmotile
    • Cell wall made of chitin (polysaccharide)
    • Absorptive Heterotrophs 
    • Saprophytes (Decompose decaying matter)
  30. Saprophytes
    Decompose decaying matter
  31. How do fungi obtain their food?
    They are absorptive heterotrophs 

    Secrete enzymes to decompose, then absorb nutrients 
  32. Two types of fungi
    • Unicellular Yeasts
    • Filamentous molds

    Divivded based on appearance 
  33. Hyphae
    Individual fungal filaments
  34. Mycelium
    Fibrous network of hyphae
  35. Which fungi do not form mycelium?
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

    Produce colonies that look like bacteria
  36. What is the name of bread mold?
    Rhizopus stolonifer

    White or grayish cottony growth
  37. Characteristics of Rhizopus
    • White mycelium 
    • Black sporangia (Where spores are)

  38. Characteristics of Aspergillus 
    Green-yellow or brown colonies with white edge
  39. Which molds smells like dirt and has a yellow mycelium?
    Aspergillus niger

    Also contains black conidiospores (asexual spore)
  40. Mycology
    The study of mold
  41. Which mold is green with a white apron and radially furrowed colonies
  42. Penicillium
    • Green
    • White apron
    • Radially furrowed colonies
  43. What are they two types of microscope techniques for studying fungi
    • Tape Mounts 
    • Slide Cultures
  44. Tape mount
    • Glass slide
    • Lactopheonol Cotton Blue (LPCB)
    • Tape
  45. Slide Culture
    • Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (media)
    • Inject the fungi into the media
  46. Advantages and dis advantages of tape mounts and slide cultures
    Tape mounts are fast, easy and last a long time. But the structures are not preserved 

    Slide cultures preserve fungi but it takes a few days to grow
  47. Two types of fungal spores used in reproduction
    • Asexual 
    • Sporangiospores (Rhizopus
    • Conidiospores (penicilluim or Aspergillus) 

    • Sexual 
    • Zygospores - Found in Rhizopus and this is the location where nuclei fuse
Card Set:
MicroLab Week1&2
2014-02-10 21:07:15
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