Card Set Information
Molecule or structure that responds to a specific form of stimulation.
Attraction that forms between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom taking part in a separate covalent bond.
Tendency of molecules to stick together.
Nucleotide that consists of an adenine base, five carbon ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups. Also functions as an energy carrier.
Monomer of nucleic acids; has five-carbon sugar, nitrogen-containing base, and phosphate groups.
Small organic compound with a carboxyl group, an amine group, and a characteristic side group (R).
A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two nonpolar fatty acid tails.
Organic compound that consists of a long chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end.
Region of cytoplasm where the DNA is concentrated inside a prokaryotic cell.
A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, but the surface area increases with the square.
Membrane protein that helps cells stick together in tissues.
Plasma membrane protein that binds to a particular substance outside of the cell.
Protein that passively or actively assists specific ions or molecules across a membrane.
Series of interacting organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles) between nucleus and plasma membrane; produces lipids, proteins.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes; extension of the nuclear envelope. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes; smooth ER is not.
Enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances.
Small, membrane-enclosed, saclike organelle; different kinds store, transport, or degrade their contents.
Dynamic framework of protein fi laments that support, organize, and move eukaryotic cells and their internal structures.
Cytoskeletal element that locks cells and tissues together.
Reinforcing cytoskeletal element; fiber of actin subunits.
Cytoskeletal element involved in movement; hollow filament of tubulin subunits.
Type of energy-using protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements to move the cells parts or the whole cell.
Extendable lobe of membrane-enclosed cytoplasm.
Cell junction that anchors cells to each other or to extracellular matrix.
Structure that connects a cell to another cell or to extracellular matrix.
extracellular matrix (ECM) Complex mixture of substances secreted by cells; supports cells and tissues; roles in cell signaling.
Cell junction that forms a channel across the plasma membranes of adjoining animal cells.
Arrays of fibrous proteins; join epithelial cells and collectively prevent fluids from leaking between them.
first law of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
second law of thermodynamics
Energy tends to disperse.
A molecule remaining at the end of a reaction.
Pocket in an enzyme where substrates bind and a reaction occurs.
Describes a region of an enzyme other than the active site that can bind regulatory molecules.
An organic molecule that is a cofactor.
A metal ion or a coenzyme that associates with an enzyme and is necessary for its function.
Protein or RNA that speeds a reaction without being changed by it.
Series of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells build, remodel, or break down an organic molecule.
The number of molecules or ions per unit volume of a fluid.
Difference in concentration between adjoining regions of fluid.
electron transfer chain
Array of enzymes and other molecules that accept and give up electrons in sequence, thus releasing the energy of the electrons in usable increments.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Amount of turgor that prevents osmosis into cytoplasm or other hypertonic fluid.
Energy-requiring mechanism by which a transport protein pumps a solute across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient.
Mechanism by which a concentration gradient drives the movement of a solute across a cell membrane through a transport protein. Requires no energy input.