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  1. receptor
    Molecule or structure that responds to a specific form of stimulation.
  2. hydrogen bond
    Attraction that forms between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom taking part in a separate covalent bond.
  3. cohesion
    Tendency of molecules to stick together.
  4. ATP
    Nucleotide that consists of an adenine base, five carbon ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups. Also functions as an energy carrier.
  5. nucleotide
    Monomer of nucleic acids; has five-carbon sugar, nitrogen-containing base, and phosphate groups.
  6. amino acid
    Small organic compound with a carboxyl group, an amine group, and a characteristic side group (R).
  7. phospholipid
    A lipid with a phosphate group in its hydrophilic head, and two nonpolar fatty acid tails.
  8. fatty acid
    Organic compound that consists of a long chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end.
  9. nucleoid
    Region of cytoplasm where the DNA is concentrated inside a prokaryotic cell.
  10. surface-to-volume ratio
    A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, but the surface area increases with the square.
  11. adhesion protein
    Membrane protein that helps cells stick together in tissues.
  12. receptor protein
    Plasma membrane protein that binds to a particular substance outside of the cell.
  13. transport protein
    Protein that passively or actively assists specific ions or molecules across a membrane.
  14. endomembrane system
    Series of interacting organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles) between nucleus and plasma membrane; produces lipids, proteins.
  15. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    Organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes; extension of the nuclear envelope. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes; smooth ER is not.
  16. peroxisome
    Enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances.
  17. vesicle
    Small, membrane-enclosed, saclike organelle; different kinds store, transport, or degrade their contents.
  18. cytoskeleton
    Dynamic framework of protein fi laments that support, organize, and move eukaryotic cells and their internal structures.
  19. intermediate filament
    Cytoskeletal element that locks cells and tissues together.
  20. microfilament
    Reinforcing cytoskeletal element; fiber of actin subunits.
  21. microtubule
    Cytoskeletal element involved in movement; hollow filament of tubulin subunits.
  22. motor protein
    Type of energy-using protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements to move the cell’s parts or the whole cell.
  23. pseudopod
    Extendable lobe of membrane-enclosed cytoplasm.
  24. adhering junction
    Cell junction that anchors cells to each other or to extracellular matrix.
  25. cell junction
    Structure that connects a cell to another cell or to extracellular matrix.
  26. extracellular matrix (ECM) Complex mixture of substances secreted by cells; supports cells and tissues; roles in cell signaling.
  27. Gap junction
    Cell junction that forms a channel across the plasma membranes of adjoining animal cells.
  28. tight junctions
    • Arrays of fibrous proteins; join epithelial cells and collectively prevent fluids from leaking between them.
    • first law of thermodynamics
    • Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
  29. second law of thermodynamics
    Energy tends to disperse.
  30. phosphorylation
    Phosphate-group transfer.
  31. product
    A molecule remaining at the end of a reaction.
  32. active site
    Pocket in an enzyme where substrates bind and a reaction occurs.
  33. allosteric
    Describes a region of an enzyme other than the active site that can bind regulatory molecules.
  34. coenzyme
    An organic molecule that is a cofactor.
  35. cofactor
    A metal ion or a coenzyme that associates with an enzyme and is necessary for its function.
  36. enzyme
    Protein or RNA that speeds a reaction without being changed by it.
  37. metabolic pathway
    Series of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells build, remodel, or break down an organic molecule.
  38. concentration
    The number of molecules or ions per unit volume of a fluid.
  39. concentration gradient
    Difference in concentration between adjoining regions of fluid.
  40. electron transfer chain
    Array of enzymes and other molecules that accept and give up electrons in sequence, thus releasing the energy of the electrons in usable increments.
  41. osmosis
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  42. osmotic pressure
    Amount of turgor that prevents osmosis into cytoplasm or other hypertonic fluid.
  43. active transport
    Energy-requiring mechanism by which a transport protein pumps a solute across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient.
  44. passive transport
    Mechanism by which a concentration gradient drives the movement of a solute across a cell membrane through a transport protein. Requires no energy input.
Card Set:
2014-02-07 05:34:21

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