NSG 200

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  1. Aura
    Bright light, smell, or taste. Serves as warning or sense that a seizure is about to occur.
  2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    Federal agency responsible for the enforcement of federal regulations regarding the manufacture, processing, and distribution of foods, drugs, and cosmetics to protect consumers against the sale of impure or dangerous substances.
  3. Immunization
    Process by which resistance to an infectious disease is produced or augmented.

    Active immunity: injection of small amount of attenuated (weakened) or dead organisms or modified toxins from the organism (toxoids) into the body.

    Passive immunity: antibodies produced by other persons or animals are introduced into a person's bloodstream for protection against a pathogen.
  4. Pathogen
    Any microorganism capable of producing an illness
  5. Poison
    Any substance that impairs health or destroys life when ingested, inhaled, or otherwise absorbed by the body.
  6. Pollutant
    Harmful chemical or waste material discharged into the water, soil, or air.
  7. Restraint
    Human, mechanical, and/or physical device that is used with or without the client's permission to restrict his or her freedom of movement or normal access to a person's body and is not a usual part of treatment plans indicated by the person's condition or symptoms. 
  8. Seizure
    Hyperexcitation and disorderly discharge of neurons in brain leading to a sudden, violent, involuntary series of muscle contractions that is paroxysmal and episodic. 
  9. Seizure Precautions
    All nursing interventions to protect the client from traumatic injury, positioning for adequate ventilation and drainage of oral secretions, and providing privacy and support following the seizure.

    Client immediately postseizure: bed in lowest position, pillow under head, padded side rails up, loosened clothing, side-lying position, and privacy curtain.
  10. Status Epilepticus
    Medical emergency whereby a person has continual seizure without interruption.
  11. Aerobic
    Bacteria require oxygen for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease
  12. Anaerobic
    Bacteria that thrive where little or no free oxygen is available
  13. Asepsis
    Absence of pathogenic microorganisms
  14. Asymptomatic
    Clinical signs and symptoms are not present in illness
  15. Bactericidal
    Temperature or chemical that destroys bacteria
  16. Bacteriostasis
    Prevent growth and reproduction of bacteria
  17. Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics
    Kills different types of bacteria
  18. Colonization
    Microorganism is present or invades a host, grows, and/or multiplies but does not cause infection
  19. Communicable disease
    Infectious disease that can be transmitted directly from one person to another.
  20. Cough Etiquette
    • Respiratory hygiene
    • 1. education on health care facility staff, client's families, and visitors
    • 2. posters and written material for health care facility or agency staff, clients, families, and visitors
    • 3. education on how to cover your nose/mouth when you cough, using a tissue, and the prompt disposal of contaminated tissue
    • 4. placing surgical mask on client if it will not compromise respiratory function or is applicable
    • 5. hand hygiene after contact with contaminated respiratory secretions
    • 6. spatial separation greater than 3 ft away from persons with respiratory infections
  21. Disinfection
    Process that eliminates many or all microorganisms from inanimate objects (EXCEPT bacterial spores) 
  22. Edema
    Localized swelling
  23. Endogenous infection
    Normal flora or virulent organisms residing that cause infection
  24. Epidemiology
    Cause and effect of health care-associated infections
  25. Exogenous Infection
    Postoperative infection
  26. Exudates
    Fluid and cells that are discharged from cells or blood vessels
  27. Granulation tissue
    Scar tissue that is not as strong as tissue collagen
  28. Hand Hygiene
    Using instant alcohol hand antiseptic before and after providing client care, hand washing with soap when hands are visibly soiled, and performing surgical scrub
  29. Handwashing
    Washing hands with warm water for at least 15 seconds with warm 
  30. Health-care Associated Infections (HAI)
    Infections resulting from delivery of health services in a health care facility
  31. Iatrogenic infections
    Type of HAI from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure

    Ex: infection from a GI endoscopy
  32. Immunocompromised
    has impaired immune system
  33. Infection
    Can be infectious or communicable
  34. Infectious
    Type of infection that may not pose a risk for transmission.
  35. Invasive
    Procedures that enter body through openings (surgical, broken skin, orifices)
  36. Leukocytosis
    Increasing number of circulating WBC

    • Normal: 5000-10,000/mm3
    • Inflammation: 15,000-20,000/mm3 +
  37. Localized
    Pertaining to a specific area of the body
  38. Medical Asepsis
    AKA clean technique

    Procedures used to reduce the number of organisms present and prevent the transfer or organisms
  39. Microorganism
    Include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa
  40. Necrotic
    Dead tissue
  41. Normal floras
    Different types of microorganisms that live symbiotically and do not cause disease when residing in their usual area of the body but instead participate in maintaining health.
  42. Phagocytosis
    Process that involved the destruction and absorption of bacteria
  43. Purulent
    Containing WBC and bacteria
  44. Reservoir
    Area for holding
  45. Sanguineous
    Containing RBC
  46. Serous
    Clear, plasma-like
  47. Standard Precuations
    Certain principles and procedures used to prevent and control infection and its spread

    Apply to all blood and body fluids (EXCEPT sweat), nonintact skin, and mucous membrance
  48. Sterile Field
    Area free of microorganisms and prepared to receive sterile items
  49. Sterilization
    Complete elimination or destruction of all microorganisms (INCLUDING bacterial spores)
  50. Suprainfection
    Disease-causing microorganisms multiply and cause illness because normal flora has been eliminated due to broad-spectrum antibiotics
  51. Surgical Asepsis
    Sterile technique prevents contamination of an open wound, serves to isolate the operative area from the unsterile environment, and maintains a sterile field for surgery
  52. Susceptibility
    Degree of immune resistance to a pathogen
  53. Suppurative
  54. Symptomatic
    Pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms
  55. Systemic
    Infection that affects the entire body instead of just a single organ or part
  56. Vector
    Mode of transmitting infectious microorganisms
  57. Virulence
    Ability to survive in the host or outside the body
  58. Afebrile
    No fever
  59. Antipyretics
    Drugs that reduce fever
  60. Auscultatory Gap
    Temporary disappearance of sound, typically between 1st and 2nd korotkoff sound
  61. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    Rate of metabolism when body is at rest. Accounts for heat produced by body. Affected by thyroid hormone
  62. Blood Pressure
    Force exerted on the walls of an artery by the pulsing blood under pressure from the heart
  63. Bradycardia
    Heart rate >60 bpm
  64. Cardiac Output
    CO = HR x SV

    Adult heart: 5L of blood/min
  65. Celsius
    C= 5/9(F-32)
  66. Conduction
    Transfer of heat from one object to another with direct contact
  67. Convection
    Transfer of heat away by air movement
  68. Core Temperature
    Temperature of the deep tissue

    Normal 98.6-100.4F
  69. Diaphoresis
    Visible perspiration primarily occurring on forehead and upper thorax
  70. Diastolic Pressure
    Minimal pressure exerted against the arterial walls at all times
  71. Diffusion
    Movement of O2 and CO2 between alveoli and RBC
  72. Dysrhythmia
    Abnormal heart rhythm; irregular or irregularly irregular
  73. Eupnea
    Normal rate and depth of ventilation
  74. Evaporation
    Transfer of heat energy when liquid is changed to gas
  75. Fahrenheit
    F= (5/9)C +32
  76. Febrile
    Fever, heat
  77. Fever
    Rise in body temperature because heat production is greater than heat loss
  78. Fever of Unknown Origin (UFO)
    Fever whose etiology cannot be determined
  79. Frostbite
    Ice crystal form inside cell, and permanent circulatory and tissue damage occurs when body is exposed to subnormal temperatures
  80. Heat Exhaustion
    Profuse diaphoresis results in excess water and electrolyte loss
  81. Heatstroke
    Dangerous heat emergency with a high mortality rate. Hot, dry skin. Patient cannot sweat because of severe electrolyte loss and hypothalamic malfunction

    Patient will become unconscious with fixed, nonreactive pupils
  82. Hematocrit
    Percentage of RBC compared to blood volume

    Determines blood viscosity
  83. Hypertension
    • High blood pressure; often asymptomatic; thickening and loss of elasticity in arterial walls
    • Normal: <119/<80
    • Pre-hypertensive: >120/ >80
    • Stage 1 Hypertension: >140/ >90
    • Stage 2 Hypertension: >160/>100
  84. Hyperthermia
    Elevated body temperature related to body's inability to promote heat loss or reduce heat production
  85. Hypotension
    Systolic blood pressure falls below <90 mmHg
  86. Hypothermia
    Heat loss during prolonged exposure to cold that overwhelms the body's ability to produce heat
  87. Malignant Hyperthermia
    Hereditary condition of uncontrolled heat production, occurring when susceptible persons receive certain anesthetic drugs
  88. Nonshivering thermogenesis
    Primarily in neonates. Metabolizing vascular brown tissue generates heat in neonates
  89. Orthostatic Hypotension
    AKA Postural Hypotension

    Normotensive person develops symptoms and low blood pressure when rising to an upright position
  90. Oxygen saturation
    Percent of Hb that is bound with oxygen in arteries; reflect how much oxygen is in blood
  91. Perfusion
    Distribution of RBC to and from pulmonary capillaries
  92. Postural hypotension
    AKA Orthostatic Hypotension

    Blood pressure drops when person rises to an upright position
  93. Pulse deficit
    An inefficient contraction of heat that fails to transmit pulse waves to peripheral pulse sites
  94. Pulse Pressure
    Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
  95. Pyrexia
  96. Pyrogens
    Organisms/things that elevate body temperature because they act as antigens that trigger immune system responses
  97. Radiation
    Transfer of heat from surface of one object to another without direct contact between the two
  98. Shivering
    Involuntary body response to temperature differences in body. Requires significant energy but increases heat production 4-5 times greater than normal
  99. Sphygmomanometer
    Instrument used to measure blood pressure with stethoscope
  100. Systolic Pressure
    Peak of maximum pressure when ejection ovvutd
  101. Tachycardia
    Heart rate > 100 bpm
  102. Thermoregulation
    Regulation of body temperature via hypothalamus

    • Anterior hypothalamus: heat loss
    • Posterior hypothalamus: heat production
  103. Ventilation
    Movement of gases in and out of lungs
  104. Vital Sign
    Measurements that indicate health status

    • Temperature
    • Blood Pressure
    • Pulse (Heart Rate)
    • Respiratory Rate
    • SaO2 (optional)
    • Pain
  105. Adventitious Sounds
    Abnormal sounds
  106. Alopecia
    Hair loss
  107. Aphasia
    Ineffective communication due to cerebral cortex

    Expressive: understand written/verbal speech but cannot write/speak appropriately

    Receptive: cannot understand written/verbal speech
  108. Apical Impulse/ Point of Maximal Impulse (PMI)
    Apex of heart touches anterior chest wall at approximately 4th-5th intercostal space; 

    AKA Mitral
  109. Arcus Senilis
    Thin white ring along the margin of the iris that is common with aging but abnormal under 40
  110. Atrophied
    Reduction in muscle size due to infrequent usage
  111. Auscultation
    Listening to sounds the body makes to detect variations from normal using stethoscope
  112. Borborygmi
    Growling sounds
  113. Bruit
    Blowing, swishing sound caused by narrowing of blood vessel
  114. Cerumen
    Ear wax that is yellow and waxy
  115. Clubbing
    Bulging tissues at nail base due to insufficient oxygenation at periphery resulting from conditions such as chronic emphysema and congenital heart disease
  116. Conjunctivitis
    Inflammation of conjunctiva that indicates allergy or infection; highly contagious
  117. Cyanosis
    Bluish discoloration; cold or lack of O2
  118. Distension
  119. Ectropion
    Lids margins that turn out
  120. Entropion
    Lid margins that turn in
  121. Erythema
    Red discoloration
  122. Excoriation
    Local skin breakdown
  123. Goniometer
    Measures degree of motion in particular join and is for patient who has suspected reduction in joint movement
  124. Hypertonicity
    Increased  muscle tone; increased muscle resistance to any sudden passive movements
  125. Hypotonicity
    Little or no muscle tone; muscle is flabby
  126. Indurated
    Hardened skin
  127. Inspection
    Visual assessment to assess abnormalities
  128. Integumentary System
    Skin, hair, scalp, nails
  129. Jaundice
    Yellow-orange discoloration; usually due to liver impairment
  130. Kyphosis
    Hunchback; exaggeration of posterior curvature of thoracic spine
  131. Lordosis
    Swayback; increased lumbar curvature
  132. Malignancy
    presence of tumor/cancer
  133. Murmurs
    Sustained swishing or blowing sounds heard at beginning, middle, or end of systolic or diastolic phase
  134. Nystagmus
    Involuntary, rhythmical oscillation of eyes
  135. Olfaction
    Detecting abnormalities via smell and body odor
  136. Orthopnea
    Shortness of breath during night time, when sleeping
  137. Osteoporosis
    Metabolic bone disease that causes a decrease in quality and quantity of bone
  138. Ototoxicity
    Injury to auditory nerve due to drugs
  139. Palpation
    Use of the hands to touch body parts to make sensitive assessments

    Temperature, moisture, texture, turgor, tenderness, and thickness
  140. Percussion
    Tapping the body with the fingertips to produce a vibration that travels through body tissues

    Location, size, and density of underlying structures
  141. Peristalsis
    Movement of contents through the intestines
  142. Pupils Equal, Round, Reactive to Light, Accommodation

    Pupils are 3-7 mm in diameter
  143. Petechiae
    Pinpoint-sized, red/purple spot on skin caused by small hemorrhages in skin layers; may indicate serious blood clotting disorders, drug reactions, or liver disease
  144. Pigmentation
    Coloration of skin; hypo or hyper
  145. Polyps
    Tumor-like growths
  146. Ptosis
    Drooping of eyelids caused by edema or impairment of CN III OR loss of elasticity in older adults
  147. Scoliosis
    A lateral spinal curvature 
  148. Stenosis
    Narrowing of blood vessels
  149. Striae
    Stretch marks
  150. Syncope
    Circulatory arrest
  151. Thrill
    Palpable murmur
  152. Turgor
    Skin elasticity; determines hydration level
  153. Ventricular Gallop
    • S3 that occurs just after S2 at end of ventricular diastole
    • I II = Ken tuck-y
  154. Vocal/Tactile Fremitus
    Vibration palpated to assess for abnormailities
  155. Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
    Self-care activities
  156. Activity Tolerance
    Kind and amount of exercise or activity that the person is able to person
  157. Antagonistic Muscles
    Bring about movement at joint
  158. Antigravity Muscles
    Involved with joint stabilization; continuously oppose effect of gravity on body and permit a person to maintain an upright or sitting posture
  159. Cartilage
    Nonvascular, supporting connective tissue with flexibility of firm, plastic material
  160. Cartilaginous Joints
    Joints that have little movement but are elastic and use cartilage to unite separate body surfaces 

    Ex: Ribs to costal cartilage
  161. Center of Gravity
    Point from which weight of body or system may be considered to act; stable base of support with low center of gravity gives more body balance
  162. Crutch Gait
    • 4 point: weight bearing on both legs
    • 3 point: weight bearing on one foot only
    • 2 point: partial weight bearing on each foot
    • Swing-through gait: weight placed on supported leg and swing through crutches while they support pt weight
  163. Exercise
    Activity requiring physical effort to sustain or improve health and fitness
  164. Fibrous Joints
    Joints that fit closely together that permit little to no movement 

    Ex: tibia and fibula syndesmosis
  165. Footboards
    Board placed at food of bed for patients to push against to move up in bed
  166. Friction
    Force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement
  167. Gait
    Manner of style of walking, including cadence, rhythm, and speed

    Assess balance, posture, and ability to walk without assistance
  168. Hemiparesis
    Muscle weakness of partial paralysis on one side of body
  169. Hemiplegia
    Paralysis of one side of body due to cerebral damage
  170. Isometric Contraction
    Tightening or tensing of muscles without moving body parts
  171. Isotonic Contraction
    Muscle contraction and change in muscle length
  172. Joint
    Articulation; connection between bones
  173. Ligaments
    White, shiny flexible bands of fibrous tissue that bind joints and connect bones and cartilage; elastic and aid joint flexibility and support
  174. Mobility
    Movement involving ROM, gait, and exercise
  175. Muscle Tone
    Balanced muscle tension
  176. Posture
    Position of body alignment during lifting, bending, moving, and performing ADLs
  177. Proprioception
    Awareness of the position of the body and its parts
  178. Range of Motion (ROM)
    Range of mobility used to assess degree of damage or injury to joint
  179. Synergistic Muscles
    Contract to accomplish same movement
  180. Synovial Joints
    AKA True Joints

    Freely moveable joints, most mobile, numerous, and anatomically complex joint

    EX: elbow (hinge joint)
  181. Tendons
    White, glistening, fibrous bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone
  182. Acupressure
    Points that influences nerve pathways to face and head
  183. Acute Pain
    Protective, identifiable cause, short duration, and has limited tissue damage and emotional response. Eventually resolves with or without treatment after a damaged area heals
  184. Addiction
    Primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations
  185. Adjuvants
    Variety of medications that enhance analgesics or have analgesic properties that were originally unknown
  186. Analgesics
    Common and effect method of pain relief
  187. Biofeedback
    Distraction to help control your body's responses to pain
  188. Breakthrough Pain
    Transient flare of moderate to severe pain superimposed on continuous or persistent pain
  189. Chronic Pain
    Lasts longer than anticipated, does not always have an identifiable cause, and leads to great personal suffering.
  190. Cutaneous stimulation
    Stimulation of skin helps to relieve pain; gate theory
  191. Drug Tolerance
    State of adaptation in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in a dimunition of one or more of the drug's effects over time
  192. Epidural Analgesia
    Anesthesia inserted into the level of vertebral interspace nearest to area requiring anesthesia
  193. Guided Imagery
    Alter affective-motivational and cognitive pain perception through relaxation
  194. Idiopathic Pain
    Chronic pain in the absence of an identifiable physical or psychological cause or pain perceived as excessive for the extent of an organic pathological condition
  195. Local Anesthesia
    Local infiltration of an anesthetic medication to induce loss of sensation to a body part
  196. Modulation
    Inhibition of pain impulse; gate theory
  197. Neurotransmitters
    Chemicals, thermal, mechanical stimuli that relea
  198. Nociceptors
    Peripheral pain nerve fiber
  199. Opioids
  200. Pain Threshold
    Point at which a person feels pain
  201. Pain tolerance
    Level of pain a person is willing to put up with
  202. Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA)
    Safe method for pain management that many clients prefer; goal is to maintain constant level of analgesic to avoid problems of prn dosing
  203. Perception
    Point at which a person is aware of pain
  204. Perinueral Infusion
    Unsutured catheter from a surgical wound placed near a nerve or groups of nerves connects to a pump containing a local anesthetic
  205. Physical Dependence
    State of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class specific withdrawal syndrome produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of drug, and/or administration of an antagonist
  206. Placebos
    Medications or procedures that produce positive or negative effects in clients
  207. Prostaglandins
    NT released by cellular damage; thought to increase sensitivity to pain
  208. Pseudoaddiction
    Drug seeking behaviors that occur when pain is under-treated
  209. Regional Anesthesia
    Injection of a local anesthetic to block a group of sensory nerve fibers
  210. Relaxation
    Mental and physical freedom from tension or stress that provides individuals a sense of self-control
  211. Transcultural Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
    Stimulation of skin with a mild electrical current passed through external electrodes
  212. Transduction
    Energy of these stimuli is converted to electrical energy 
  213. Transmission
    Pain impulse is sent after transduction
Card Set:
NSG 200
2014-02-09 08:50:34
Vocab Quiz

Client Safety Infection prevention & control Vital Signs Health Assessment Activity/Transfer & Pain Management
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