APUSH ch 31-32

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APUSH ch 31-32
2014-02-07 11:23:00

Definitions of various acts and important facts
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  1. Underwood Tariff 1913
    substantially reduced import fees and enacted a graduated income tax (under the approval of the recent 16th Amendment)
  2. Louis D Brandeis
    Author of Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use It (1914) which furthermore showed the problems of American finances at the time.
  3. 1913 Federal Reserve Act
    created the new Federal Reserve Board, which oversaw a nationwide system of twelve regional reserve districts, each with its own central bank, and had the power to issue paper money (“Federal Reserve Notes”).
  4. Federal Trade Commission Act 1914
    empowered a president-appointed position to investigate the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices such as unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, & bribery
  5. Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914
    lengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act’s list of practices that were objectionable, exempted labor unions from being called trusts (as they had been called by the Supreme Court under the Sherman Act), and legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor union members.
  6. "triple wall of privilege"
    the tariff, the banks, and the trusts
  7. Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916
    • made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest
    • populist idea
  8. Warehouse Act of 1916
    • permitted loans on the security of staple crops
    • populist idea
  9. Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916
    granted assistance of federal civil-service employees during periods of instability but was invalidated by the Supreme Court
  10. 1916 Adamson Act
    established an eight-hour workday with overtime pay
  11. Jones Act in 1916
    • granted full territorial status to the Philippines and promised independence as soon as a stable government could be established.
    • The Filipinos finally got their independence on July 4, 1946
  12. the Lusitania
    • a British passenger liner that was carrying arms and munitions sank by the German U-boats
    • The attack killed 1,198 lives, including 128 Americans.
  13. Roots of the progressives
    • the Greenback Labor Party of the 1870s and 1880s
    • the Populist (or People's) Party of the 1890s.
  14. Henry Demarest Lloyd
    • wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth
    • exposed the corruption of the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company

  15. Thorstein Veblen
    • wrote The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)
    • criticized the new rich (those who made money from the trusts)
  16. Jacob A. Riis
    • wrote How the Other Half Lives, a book about the New York slums and its inhabitants
    • muckraker
  17. Theodore Dreiser
    • muckraker
    • wrote The Financier and The Titan to attack profiteers
  18. Lincoln Steffens
    • wrote a series of articles in McClure’s entitled “The Shame of the Cities”
    • unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and the government
  19. Ida M. Tarbell
    launched a devastating exposé against Standard Oil and its ruthlessness
  20. Ray Stannard Baker
    • author of  Following the Color Line
    • was about the illiteracy of Blacks

  21. John Spargo
    • wrote The Bitter Cry of the Children 
    • exposed child labor
  22. Dr. Harvey W. Wiley
    exposed the frauds that sold potent patent medicines by experimenting on himself
  23. initiative
    voters could directly propose legislation
  24. referendum
    people could vote on laws that affected them
  25. recall
    the ability to remove bad officials from office
  26. 17th Amendment
    provided for direct election of senators
  27. city-manager system
    was designed to take politics out of municipal administration.
  28. Charles Evans Hughes
    • gained fame by investigating the malpractices of gas and insurance companies
    • governor of New York
  29. Robert M. La Follette
    • wrestled control from the trusts and returned power to the people
    • a Progressive leader
  30. Muller vs. Oregon (1908)
    Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws that protected women workers on the basis that women's bodies were weaker
  31. Lochner v. New York
    invalidated a New York law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers
  32. Triangle Shirtwaist Company
    • 1911 fire in NYC
    • killed 146 workers, mostly young women
  33. 18th Amendment
    prohibited the sale and drinking of alcohol.
  34. TR’s Square Deal for Labor
    • Embraced the three C's:
    • control of the corporations
    • consumer protection
    • conservation of the United States’ natural resources
  35. Elkins Act
    fined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them
  36. Hepburn Act
    restricted the free passes of railroads.
  37. Meat Inspection Act
    the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can.
  38. Pure Food and Drug Act
    tried to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
  39. Forest Reserve Act of 1891
    authorized the president to set aside land to be protected as national parks
  40. Newlands Act of 1902
    initiated irrigation projects for the western states while the giant Roosevelt Dam, built on the Arizona River, was dedicated in 1911.
  41. Aldrich-Vreeland Act 1908
    authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral
  42. Eugene V. Debs
  43. Dollar Diplomacy
    • called for Wall Street bankers to sluice their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the U.S
    • This investment, in effect, gave the U.S. economic control over these areas.
  44. The split of the Republican Party
    • Done by Taft
    • Two main issues: (1) the tariff and (2) conservation of lands.
    • Old Republicans were high-tariff; new/Progressive Republicans were low tariff
    • Old Republicans favored using the lands for business; new/Progressive Republicans favored conservation of lands.
  45. Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel of 1910
    Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate development and was criticized by Forestry chief Gifford Pinchot, who was then fired by Taft