substantially reduced import fees and enacted a graduated income tax (under the approval of the recent 16th Amendment)
Louis D Brandeis
Author of Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use It (1914) which furthermore showed the problems of American finances at the time.
1913 Federal Reserve Act
created the new Federal Reserve Board, which oversaw a nationwide system of twelve regional reserve districts, each with its own central bank, and had the power to issue paper money (“Federal Reserve Notes”).
Federal Trade Commission Act 1914
empowered a president-appointed position to investigate the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices such as unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, & bribery
Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914
lengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act’s list of practices that were objectionable, exempted labor unions from being called trusts (as they had been called by the Supreme Court under the Sherman Act), and legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor union members.
"triple wall of privilege"
the tariff, the banks, and the trusts
Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916
made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest
Warehouse Act of 1916
permitted loans on the security of staple crops
Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916
granted assistance of federal civil-service employees during periods of instability but was invalidated by the Supreme Court
1916 Adamson Act
established an eight-hour workday with overtime pay
Jones Act in 1916
granted full territorial status to the Philippines and promised independence as soon as a stable government could be established.
The Filipinos finally got their independence on July 4, 1946
a British passenger liner that was carrying arms and munitions sank by the German U-boats
The attack killed 1,198 lives, including 128 Americans.
Roots of the progressives
the Greenback Labor Party of the 1870s and 1880s
the Populist (or People's) Party of the 1890s.
Henry Demarest Lloyd
wrote Wealth Against Commonwealthexposed the corruption of the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company
wrote The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)
criticized the new rich (those who made money from the trusts)
Jacob A. Riis
wrote How the Other Half Lives, a book about the New York slums and its inhabitants
wrote The Financier and The Titan to attack profiteers
wrote a series of articles in McClure’s entitled “The Shame of the Cities”unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and the government
Ida M. Tarbell
launched a devastating exposé against Standard Oil and its ruthlessness
Ray Stannard Baker
author of Following the Color Linewas about the illiteracy of Blacks
wrote The Bitter Cry of the Children
exposed child labor
Dr. Harvey W. Wiley
exposed the frauds that sold potent patent medicines by experimenting on himself
voters could directly propose legislation
people could vote on laws that affected them
the ability to remove bad officials from office
provided for direct election of senators
was designed to take politics out of municipal administration.
Charles Evans Hughes
gained fame by investigating the malpractices of gas and insurance companies
governor of New York
Robert M. La Follette
wrestled control from the trusts and returned power to the people
a Progressive leader
Muller vs. Oregon (1908)
Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws that protected women workers on the basis that women's bodies were weaker
Lochner v. New York
invalidated a New York law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
1911 fire in NYC
killed 146 workers, mostly young women
prohibited the sale and drinking of alcohol.
TR’s Square Deal for Labor
Embraced the three C's:
control of the corporations
conservation of the United States’ natural resources
fined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them
restricted the free passes of railroads.
Meat Inspection Act
the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can.
Pure Food and Drug Act
tried to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
authorized the president to set aside land to be protected as national parks
Newlands Act of 1902
initiated irrigation projects for the western states while the giant Roosevelt Dam, built on the Arizona River, was dedicated in 1911.
Aldrich-Vreeland Act 1908
authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral
Eugene V. Debs
called for Wall Street bankers to sluice their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the U.S
This investment, in effect, gave the U.S. economic control over these areas.
The split of the Republican Party
Done by Taft
Two main issues: (1) the tariff and (2) conservation of lands.
Old Republicans were high-tariff; new/Progressive Republicans were low tariff
Old Republicans favored using the lands for business; new/Progressive Republicans favored conservation of lands.
Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel of 1910
Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate development and was criticized by Forestry chief Gifford Pinchot, who was then fired by Taft