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Refers to an academic & applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.
Wundt's approach to discovering the basic elements, or structures, of mental processes via introspection
German philosopher-physician known as "The Father of Psychology" for opening the first Psychology Laboratory in 1879
- James's approach to mental processes, emphasizing the functions and
- purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual's adaptation to the
- principle of an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best
- adapted to their environment will survive and produce offspring.
The 7 Contemporary Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
- -Behavioral - a person's observable reactions to stimuli
- -Biological - Relationship between the body & mind
- -Cognitive - Concerns Mental Processes
- -Evolutionary - Explains Bxs w/ adaptation, natural selection, and reproduction
- -Humanistic - Positive qualities of humans and our capacity for positive growth
- -Psychodynamic - uncx desires & motives
- -Sociocultural - Social & cultural environments influence Bx
- An approach to psychology emphasizing unconscious thought, the conflict
- between biological drives (such as the drive for sex) and society's
- demands, and early childhood family experiences.
An approach to psychology that examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior.
- An approach to psychology emphasizing a person's positive qualities, the
- capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny.
- An approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable
- behavioral responses and their environmental determinants.
An approach to psychology focusing on the body, especially the brain and nervous system.
- An approach to psychology centered on evolutionary ideas such as
- adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for
- explaining specific human behaviors.
- An approach to psychology emphasizing the mental processes involved in
- knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and
- solve problems.
5 Steps of the Scientific Method
- 1.) Formal OBSERVATION of some phenomena
- 2.) Formulate HYPOTHESIS & Predictions
- 3.) Test via Empirical RESEARCH
- 4.) Draw CONCLUSIONS
- 5.) EVALUATE Conclusions
Research method that describes the nature of the relationship between the intended variables via formal observation without looking at cause or effect
Anything that can be changed
- Research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to
- examine whether and how two variables change together.
- A carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one
- or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable.
Determines whether causal relationship exists between variables
- Researchers' assignment of participants to groups by chance, to reduce
- the likelihood that an experiment's results will be due to preexisting
- differences between groups.
The subset of the population chosen by the investigator for study.
The entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions.
A manipulated experimental factor, the variable that the experimenter changes to see what its effects are.
The outcome—the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable.
Any possible variable (other than the independent variable) that may cause the observed effect.
Obtaining measures of variables of interest in multiple waves over time
Name 2 Research Settings
1.)Laboratory Research - Control, but with some drawbacks
2.)Naturalistic Observation - Real-world setting
Explain Ethical Research
- Research participants (both animal & human) have certain rights that are enforced by the IRB.
- The APA Ethics Guidelines require: Informed Consent, Confidentiality, Debriefing, and Deception
"Psychology and what it means to you..."
-Avoid generalizing based on little information.
-Distinguish between group results and individual needs.
-Look for answers beyond a single study.
-Avoid attributing causes where none have been found.
-Consider source of psychological information
The use of systematic methods to formally observe the natural world, including human behavior, and to draw conclusions
Everything we do that can be directly observed
Mental Processes (MPROs)
The thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experience privately, but cannot be directly observed.
Critical Thinking (CT)
The process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence.
Desire to learn that begins with paying attention. Asks: "What is it?"/"Why is it this way?"
Discriminating objective fact from subjective fiction by determining whether evidence can be manipulated
to not be influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased:
List Current Fields of Psychology
- Clinical -
- Counseling -
- Developmental -
- Social -
- Industrial/Organizational -
- Experimental -
- Forensic -
- Quantitative -
- Health -
- Cognitive -
- Personality -
How does psychology differ from common sense?
Unlike common sense, Psychology's principles are based on rigorous research and verifiable evidence