Psychology 5 Chapter 1 Quiz

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Flashahhah
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260788
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Psychology 5 Chapter 1 Quiz
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2014-02-07 19:39:13
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Psychology
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Experience Psychology 2nd Edition Ch1
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  1. Psychology
    Refers to an academic & applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.
  2. Structuralism
    Wundt's approach to discovering the basic elements, or structures, of mental processes via introspection
  3. Wilhelm Wundt
    German philosopher-physician known as "The Father of Psychology" for opening the first Psychology Laboratory in 1879
  4. Functionalism
    • James's approach to mental processes, emphasizing the functions and
    • purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual's adaptation to the
    • environment
  5. Natural Selection
    • Darwin's
    • principle of an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best
    • adapted to their environment will survive and produce offspring.
  6. The 7 Contemporary Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
    • -Behavioral - a person's observable reactions to stimuli
    • -Biological - Relationship between the body & mind
    • -Cognitive - Concerns Mental Processes
    • -Evolutionary - Explains Bxs w/ adaptation, natural selection, and reproduction
    • -Humanistic - Positive qualities of humans and our capacity for positive growth
    • -Psychodynamic - uncx desires & motives
    • -Sociocultural - Social & cultural environments influence Bx
  7. Psychodynamic
    • An approach to psychology emphasizing unconscious thought, the conflict
    • between biological drives (such as the drive for sex) and society's
    • demands, and early childhood family experiences.

  8. Sociocultural
    An approach to psychology that examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior.
  9. Humanistic
    • An approach to psychology emphasizing a person's positive qualities, the
    • capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny.
  10. Behavioral
    • An approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable
    • behavioral responses and their environmental determinants.
  11. Biological
    An approach to psychology focusing on the body, especially the brain and nervous system.
  12. Evolutionary
    • An approach to psychology centered on evolutionary ideas such as
    • adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for
    • explaining specific human behaviors.
  13. Cognitive
    • An approach to psychology emphasizing the mental processes involved in
    • knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and
    • solve problems.
  14. 5 Steps of the Scientific Method
    • 1.) Formal OBSERVATION of some phenomena
    • 2.) Formulate HYPOTHESIS & Predictions
    • 3.) Test via Empirical RESEARCH
    • 4.) Draw CONCLUSIONS
    • 5.) EVALUATE Conclusions
  15. Descriptive Research
    Research method that describes the nature of the relationship between the intended variables via formal observation without looking at cause or effect
  16. Variable
    Anything that can be changed
  17. Correlation Research
    • Research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to
    • examine whether and how two variables change together.
  18. Experiment
    • A carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one
    • or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable.
  19. Experimental Research
    Determines whether causal relationship exists between variables
  20. Random Assignment
    • Researchers' assignment of participants to groups by chance, to reduce
    • the likelihood that an experiment's results will be due to preexisting
    • differences between groups.
  21. Sample
    The subset of the population chosen by the investigator for study.
  22. Population
    The entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions.
  23. Independent Variable
    A manipulated experimental factor, the variable that the experimenter changes to see what its effects are.
  24. Dependent Variable
    The outcome—the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable.
  25. Confound Variable
    Any possible variable (other than the independent variable) that may cause the observed effect.
  26. Longitudinal Design
    Obtaining measures of variables of interest in multiple waves over time
  27. Name 2 Research Settings
    1.)Laboratory Research - Control, but with some drawbacks

    2.)Naturalistic Observation - Real-world setting
  28. Explain Ethical Research
    • Research participants (both animal & human) have certain rights that are enforced by the IRB.
    • The APA Ethics Guidelines require: Informed Consent, Confidentiality, Debriefing, and Deception
  29. "Psychology and what it means to you..."
    -Avoid generalizing based on little information.

    -Distinguish between group results and individual needs.

    -Look for answers beyond a single study.

    -Avoid attributing causes where none have been found.

    -Consider source of psychological information
  30. Science (Sci.)
    The use of systematic methods to formally observe the natural world, including human behavior, and to draw conclusions
  31. Behavior (Bx)
    Everything we do that can be directly observed
  32. Mental Processes (MPROs)
    The thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experience privately, but cannot be directly observed.
  33. Critical Thinking (CT)
    The process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence.
  34. Describe Curiosity
    Desire to learn that begins with paying attention. Asks: "What is it?"/"Why is it this way?"
  35. Skepticism
    Discriminating objective fact from subjective fiction by determining whether evidence can be manipulated
  36. Objectivity
    to not be influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased:
  37. List Current Fields of Psychology
    • Clinical -
    • Counseling -
    • Developmental -
    • Social -
    • Industrial/Organizational -
    • Experimental -
    • Forensic -
    • Quantitative -
    • Health -
    • Cognitive -
    • Personality -
  38. How does psychology differ from common sense?
    Unlike common sense, Psychology's principles are based on rigorous research and verifiable evidence

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