Bio Chapter 1

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Bio Chapter 1
2014-02-07 21:28:37
Bio 181
Chapter one!!!!!!!!!
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  1. What is an Inquiry?


    What are  two ways of Inquiry?
    Inquiry: a search 4 info and explanation

    2 types: Discovery Science and Scientific Method
  2. Define Discovery Science.
    What type of reasoning is it?
    Inductive Reasoning

    Based on OBSERVATION repeatedly to reach a conclusion/generalization
  3. The scientific method is based on what?
    What kind of reasoning is this?
    Deductive reasoning

    Based on Hypothesis
  4. List the 7 steps of the scientific method.
    • -Observation
    • -Ask a question
    • -Formulate a hypothesis
    • -Test your hypothesis
    • -Collect Data
    • -Analyze Data
    • -Draw conclusion
  5. What two types of DATA could be collected?

    and give examples!
    Qualitative (observations, pics, vids)

    Quantitative (#'s )
  6. What is a variable?
    Conditions that have impact on your question.
  7. Independent variable?
    What YOU change!
  8. Dependent Variable?
    What is measured as a result of changing the independent. (Depends on independent variable)
  9. Controlled Variable?

    (temp., pressure, light...)
  10. Control Group?
    missing independent variable, all other things are constant.
  11. Define Evolution.
    Process of change that has transformed life on earth
  12. Biology is...?
    Scientific study of life
  13. Charles Darwin book was titled what?
    "Origin of species by means of natural selection"
  14. What is Darwinism?
    - Concept of Evolution
  15. What two main points did Darwin's book articulate?
    -Natural Selection

    -Descent with modification
  16. What is mutation?

    Mutation is the raw material for what?
    permanent change in the DNA sequence. 

    (is responsible for the variations in a pop.)

    raw material for evolution
  17. What 3 observations did Charles Darwin make from nature?
    1. Individuals in a pop. vary (diff traits, heritable traits came from ma and pops)

    2. Over reproduction (pop. produce more offspring than can survive to produce offspring of their own) 

    = more competition

    3. Individuals w/ better fitness in a environment survive and have higher reproduction success (adapting to environment)
  18. Define Natural Selection.
    Individuals with certain inheritable traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than others because of those traits
  19. What is the mechanism behind

    "Descent with modification" ?
    Natural Selection
  20. What is decent with modification?
    theory that commentary species arose from a succession of ancestors
  21. STRUCTURE and FUNCTION of living organisms are?
    are closely related
  22. What is the basis of continuity of life?
    CELL DIVISION and DNA are the basis for continuity of life!
  23. DNA is made up of 4 what?
    DNA is made up of 4 Nucleotides
  24. What are the 4 Nucleotides, DNA is made up of?
    • -Adenine
    • -Guamine
    • -Thymine
    • -Cytosine
  25. DNA is made up of 2 large ___?___ aka _____, arranged in a ____________.
    DNA is made up of 2 large strands aka chains, arranged in a double helix.
  26. What are Nucleotides?
    Building blocks of our genetic material (DNA)

    Essential for cell division and growth
  27. State the 7 properties of life

    ( What we need to survive, and live )
    • 1-Order (in our bodies, environment...)
    • 2-Regulation (body temp., blood flow...)
    • 3-Energy Processing (food=energy...)
    • 4-Evolutionary Adaptation
    • 5-Response to environment
    • 6-Reproduction
    • 7-Growth and Development
  28. Based on what did Carl Woese (1971) propose?
    3 Domain Systems of classification of all living organisms proposed by Carl based on molecular evidence
  29. What 3 domain system of classification is there for living organisms?
    - Bacteria


  30. __________ and _________ are Prokaryotic.
    Bateria and Archaea
  31. What are Archaea?
    Extremophiles live in extreme environments 

    (Ex. salty lakes, boiling hot springs...)
  32. What are the 4 kingdoms in the Eukarya Domain?

    Give examples (multi or unicellular? ex? Trait?)
    -Protists (unicellular, In pond water

    -Fungi (mushroom...)

    -Plants (plantae, multi-cellular, carry out photosynthesis)

    -Animalia (animals, insects...ingest other organisms, multicellular)
  33. Bioinformatics is?
    use of computers and software (algorithms) to analyze bio data

    (mainly DNA, RNA, protein sequence, their function and structure.)
  34. Define Genes.
    Units of inheritance that transmit info from parents to offspring

    Control protein production indirectly
  35. DNA provides "Blueprint" for ________.
    DNA provides "Blueprint" for Proteins.
  36. RNA Nucleotides??



  37. DNA transcribes into _____ then translates to _______.
    DNA transcribes into RNA then translates to proteins.
  38. What are proteins?
    Main player in building and maintaining the cell
  39. Genome?
    Entire set of genetic instructions (that organisms inherit)
  40. Define Homeostasis.
    Internal balance in all living organisms is maintained.
  41. What are molecules?
    2 or more atoms combined
  42. What are atoms?
    smallest unit of matter that retains properties of an element.
  43. What are four major molecules?



    -Nucleic Acids
  44. What are the 11 Biological Organizations?

    From smallest to largest!
    • atoms
    • 1. Molecules
    • 2. Organelles
    • 3. Cells
    • 4. Tissue
    • 5. Organ
    • 6.Organ systems
    • 7. Organisms
    • 8. Population
    • 9. Community
    • 10. Ecosystem
    • 11. Biosphere
  45. What is a population?
    All individuals of a species (living within a specified area)
  46. What is a community?
    Entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem.
  47. What is a ecosystem?
    ALL living things in a particular area along with non living components
  48. ALL ecosystems make up what?
  49. What are producers?
    They make their own food (photosynthesis)

    Plants! AUTOTROPHS!!!!!!
  50. What is photosynthesis?
    Converting light energy into chemical energy

    CO2 from air
  51. What are decomposers?
    Consumers as well!!!
  52. Consumers?
    Feed on producers and other consumers.

  53. producers absorb ______ energy and then transform it into ____________energy.
    light energy

  54. Plants use ______ energy to grow.
    Plants use Chemical energy to grow.
  55. Chemical energy in food is transferred from _________ to __________.
    Chemical energy in food is transferred from Plants to consumers.
  56. Kinetic energy is?
    Energy of motion.
  57. What do Feedback Mechanisms do?
    These mechanisms allow biological processes to self-regulate.

  58. What is POSITIVE feedback?
    (+) feedback means that more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product produced.
  59. What is NEGATIVE feedback?
    (-) feedback means that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced.